Karnataka’s pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.
Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region’s emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi; the Western Ganga Dynastywas formed with Talakad as its capital.
These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscriptionand a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi. These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire,which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century. The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.
At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture. The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Naduunder its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.
In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota. The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers. In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan. To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan’s death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799. The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.
As the “doctrine of lapse” gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848. Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 – were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.
After India’s independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom’s accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973. In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka’s strong manufacturing and industrial base.
The state has three principal geographical zones:
- The coastal region of Karavali
- The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats
- The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan plateau
The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India. The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chickmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,929 metres (6,329 ft). Some of the important rivers in Karnataka are Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna, Malaprabha and the Sharavathi. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydel power generation capacities of the state.
Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations — the Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols. Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.
Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Agumbe in the Shivamogga district receives the second highest annual rainfall in India. The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) at Raichur and the lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar.
About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state’s geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.
QUANTUM MECHANICS A TRUE MYSTERY
- What is matter? That is the most basic question thyat arises in an individual’s mind.
To give a simple answer/explanation matter is somertihng which has occupied space and mass.But this is not where it ends,we have five exclusive states of matter, which interact with the environment very difffrently they are solid,liquid,gas,plasma,bose-einstein condensate.
- So we won’t go too deep in these things as we have a different topic to disscuss.
- so matter is something which is present in the form of WAVES as well as PARTICLES.This means that it is both in form of waves as well as particles.
- confusing, isn’t it well this is where we leap into something called as QUANTUM MECHANICS often referred to as QUANTUM PHYSICS
- QUANTUM MECHANICS is a very intresting topic and is widely recognised by experts as a dazzzling subject as it deals with particles and somethings which are even smaller than atoms
- As it is a baffling as well as diffficult subject to put it very bluntly quantum mechanics is the mathematics of the motion of sub-atomic particles
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears.
Various forms of football can be identified in history, often as popular peasant games. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the nineteenth century. The expanse of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire. In 1888 the first football league was played in England, also known as English Premier League.
After this many footballing countries were encouraged to start their own national football league ie. Spain- La Liga, Germay- Bundesliga, Italy- Serie A.
”Football is not just a sport, Its more than it”
All RELIGIONS are equal and all are humans…
Together form the WORLD!!!…
NEUTRON STAR, WHAT IS IT ?
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars known to exist.
PROPERTIES OF A NEUTRON STAR-
MASS AND TEMPERATURE:
A neutron star has a mass of at least 1.1 and perhaps up to 3 solar masses. the temperature inside a neutron star is 1011 to 1012 kelvin. However, the huge number of neutrinos it emits carry away so much energy that the temperature of an isolated neutron star falls within a few years to around 106 kelvin. At this lower temperature, most of the light generated by a neutron star is in X-rays.
DENSITY AND PRESSURE :
Neutron stars have overall densities of 3.7×1017 to 5.9×1017 kg/m3 (2.6×1014 to 4.1×1014 times the density of the Sun).The neutron star’s density varies from about 1×109 kg/m3 in the crust—increasing with depth—to about 6×1017 or 8×1017 kg/m3 (denser than an atomic nucleus) deeper inside.A neutron star is so dense that one teaspoon (5 MILLILITRE) of its material would have a mass over 5.5×1012 kg (that is 1100 TONNES per 1 NANOMILLITRE), about 900 times the mass of the GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA.
NEUTRON stars have a high magnetic field. The magnetic field strength on the surface of neutron stars has been estimated at least to have the range of 104 to 10 11
in a unit known as TESLA.
THE PERIODIC TABLE
- The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. This ordering shows periodic trends, such as elements with similar behaviour in the same column. It also shows four rectangular blocks with some approximately similar chemical properties. In general, within one row (period) the elements are metals on the left, and non-metals on the right.
- The periodic table has 119 elements in total.
- the first 20 elements are-hydrogen,helium,lithium,beryllium,boron,carbon,nitrogen,oxygen,fluorine,neon,sodium,magnesium,aluminium,silicon,phosphorous,sulphur,chlorine,argon, potassium,calcium.
- the table was founded by-Dmitri Mendeleev
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Humans have achieved a great development in today’s world all because of improvement in science and technology.
- One can talk to other even if they are in different places through phones.
- Earlier, people waited for messages for months but through the improvement made in technology. We are able to send messages in seconds.
- Technology has also helped humans in agricultural field which has improved the production of food grains. More information is provided here : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FNn5DB1Zen4
WHAT IS DYSLEXIA ?
Dyslexia can be said as a reading disorder in which different people are affected to varying degrees . Problems may include difficulties in spellingwords, reading quickly, writing words, “sounding out” words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads . It includes problems within the brain’s language processing , thinking and imagining .
- Dyslexia is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. It may run in families .
- It often occurs in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) .
- It may begin in adulthood as the result of a traumatic brain injury, , or dementia
Dyslexia is often accompanied by several learning disabilities, but it is unclear whether they share underlying neurological causes. These associated disabilities include:
- Dysgraphia – A disorder which primarily expresses itself through difficulties with writing or typing, but in some cases through difficulties associated with eye–hand coordination and direction or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out repetitive tasks. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter-writing automaticity, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word forming which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – A disorder characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or taking action without forethought.Dyslexia and ADHD commonly occur together. Either 15% or 12–24% of people with dyslexia have ADHD. 35% of people with ADHD have dyslexia.
- Auditory processing disorder – A listening disability that affects the ability to process auditory information. This can lead to problems with auditory memoryand auditory sequencing. Many people with dyslexia have auditory processing problems, and may develop their own logographic cues to compensate for this type of deficit. Some research indicates that auditory processing skills could be the primary shortfall in dyslexia.
- Developmental coordination disorder – A neurological condition characterized by marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, kinesthetic coordination, difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problems with short-term memory, and organization.
Treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person’s needs. While not curing the underlying problem, it may decrease the degree of symptoms. Treatments targeting vision are not effective.Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and occurs in all areas of the world. It affects 3–7% of the population, however, up to 20% may have some degree of symptoms.While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in men, it has been suggested that it affects men and women equally.Some believe that dyslexia should be best considered as a different way of learning, with both benefits and downsides.
Recently Nokia came up with a new idea in a phone which proved that nokia is still in the competition with brands like
- And many more……
Nokia was being foolish by using Microsoft as their software partner,this does not mean that Microsoft was a bad company.Microsoft is still the best software for computers..
THE NEW NOKIA PHONE WAS THE PHONE IN WHICH THEY HAD PARTNERED WITH ANDROID..
IT WAS THE NOKIA 6