sirius black

irius Black (3 November,[9] 1959[10] – 18 June1996[4]), also known as Padfoot or Snuffles (in his Animagus form) was a pure-bloodwizard, the older son of Orion and Walburga Black, and the brother of Regulus Black. Although he was the heir of the House of Black, Sirius disagreed with his family’s belief in blood purity and defied tradition when he was Sorted into Gryffindor House instead of Slytherin at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, which he attended from 19711978. As the rest of his family had been in Slytherin, he was the odd one out.

As Sirius’ relationship with his relatives deteriorated, he gained lifelong friendship in James Potter and Remus LupinPeter Pettigrew was a friend as well for ten years. The four friends, also known as the Marauders, joined the Order of the Phoenix to fight against Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters during the First Wizarding War. Sirius was named the godfather of Harry James Potter, the only son of James and Lily Potter. When Pettigrew betrayed the Potters to Voldemort, Sirius sought to exact revenge on Pettigrew. However, Pettigrew was able to frame Sirius for his betrayal of the Potters, the of twelve Muggles, and the staged of Pettigrew before Sirius could accomplish this.

Sirius was sent to Azkaban, and after twelve years became the only known person to escape the prison unassisted by transforming into his Animagus form of a massive black dog confused with a “Grim”, an omen said to cause death. Sirius exposed Pettigrew’s treachery to his old friend Remus and his godson. After Lord Voldemort returned in 1995, Sirius rejoined the Order. He was murdered by his cousin Bellatrix Lestrange during the Battle of the Department of Mysteriesand subsequently cleared of all charges by the Ministry of Magic, though he was too late to enjoy his freedom.

He briefly appeared again to Harry through the Resurrection Stone on 2 May, 1998, along with James and Lily Potter, and Remus Lupin. Harry later named his first son James Sirius Potter after him and his best friend James Potter I


Early life (1959-1971)

Harry Potter: “Were — were your parents Death Eaters as well?
Sirius: “No, no, but believe me, they thought Voldemort had the right idea, they were all for the purification of the wizarding race, getting rid of Muggle-borns and having pure-bloods in charge.
— Sirius regarding his family’s beliefs[src]

Sirius was the last remaining heir of the House of Black, a once-notable pure-blood wizarding family. His parents, Orion and Walburga, were both Blacks by birth and second cousins. Sirius had a younger brother, Regulus, who died after turning against Lord Voldemort in 1979 by attempting to destroy his Horcruxes. He was killed by the Inferi guarding one of his Horcruxes (although Sirius did not know this). Sirius did not share a close relationship with his brother, calling him “a better son” than himself.[11]

“Sirius” is a traditional Black family name, recurring in at least three generations and following a family tradition of naming children after stars, constellations, and galaxies. The names CygnusArcturus, and Regulus have also occurred at least twice each. Notably, however, only one Sirius (the subject’s great-grandfather) left a line of descent, which ended with the youngest Sirius, as he did not have children.[12]

The Blacks in the early 1970s

The Black family believed strongly in pure-blood elitism. They refused to consort with Muggles or Muggle-borns, Squibs and blood traitors and even disowned Squib family members, such as Sirius’ great-uncle Marius Black, and insisted that their family members only marry within respectable pure-blood classes; because of these beliefs, they were forced to marry their own cousins. They also held the Dark Artsin reverence. Sirius rejected these values, leading to conflict with his family. He even put permanent-sticking charms on Gryffindor banners, as well as pictures of Muggle girls in bikinis, and motorcycles, and a picture of himself and his Gryffindor friends on the walls of his room to emphasise his differences from the family and annoy his parents.[13]When his cousins Bellatrix and Narcissa made the desirable pure-blood marriages, to Rodolph


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We have chapters in Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. It can be classified as grand, petty and political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs.


More than 100 countries, pressuring governments, businesses and the powerful to take strong action against corruption. We also support witnesses and victims of corruption.

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MS Dhoni; born 7 July 1981) is an Indian cricketerwho captained the Indian team in limited-overs formats from 2007 to 2016 and in Test cricket from 2008 to 2014. An attacking right-handed middle-order batsman and wicket-keeper, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest finishers in limited-overs cricket.[2][3][4][5] He is also regarded to be one of the best wicket-keepers in world cricket and is known to have very fast hands.[6][7] He made his One Day International (ODI) debut in December 2004 against Bangladesh, and played his first Test a year later against Sri Lanka.

Dhoni holds numerous captaincy records such as most wins by an Indian captain in Tests and ODIs, and most back-to-back wins by an Indian captain in ODIs. He took over the ODI captaincy from Rahul Dravid in 2007 and led the team to its first-ever bilateral ODI series wins in Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Under his captaincy, India won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, the CB Series of 2007–08, the 2010 Asia Cup, the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup and the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. In the final of the 2011 World Cup, Dhoni scored 91 not out off 79 balls handing India the victory for which he was awarded the Man of the Match. In June 2013, when India defeated England in the final of the Champions Trophy in England, Dhoni became the first captain to win all three ICC limited-overs trophies (World Cup, Champions Trophy and the World Twenty20). After taking up the Test captaincy in 2008, he led the team to series wins in New Zealand and West Indies, and the Border-Gavaskar Trophyin 2008, 2010 and 2013. In 2009, Dhoni also led the Indian team to number one position for the first time in the ICC Test rankings. In 2013, under his captaincy, India became the first team in more than 40 years to whitewash Australia in a Test series. In the Indian Premier League, he captained the Chennai Super Kings to victory at the 2010 and 2011 seasons, along with wins in the 2010 and 2014 editions of Champions League Twenty20. He announced his retirement from Tests on 30 December 2014.[8]

Dhoni holds the post of Vice-President of India Cements Ltd., after resigning from Air India. India Cements is the owner of the IPL team Chennai Super Kings, and Dhoni has been its captain since the first IPL season.[9][10] Dhoni is the co-owner of Indian Super League team Chennaiyin FC.[11]

Dhoni has been the recipient of many awards, including the ICC ODI Player of the Year award in 2008 and 2009 (the first player to win the award twice), the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 2007 and the Padma Shri, India’s fourth highest civilian honour, in 2009.[12] He was named as the captain of ICC World Test XI and ICC World ODI XI teams for 2009. The Indian Territorial Army conferred the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel[13] to Dhoni on 1 November 2011. He is the second Indian cricketer after Kapil Dev to have received this honour. In 2011, Time magazine included Dhoni in its annual Time 100 list as one of the “Most Influential People in the World.”[14] In 2012, SportsPro rated Dhoni as the sixteenth most marketable athlete in the world.[15] In June 2015, Forbes ranked Dhoni at 23rd in the list of highest paid athletes in the world, estimating his earnings at US$31 million.[16] In 2016, a biopic M.S. Dhoni: The Untold Story was made on him

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My India

Better than Heaven or Arcadia
I love thee, O my India!
And thy love I shall give

To every brother nation that lives.
God made the Earth;

Man made confining countries
But with unfound boundless love
I behold the borderland of my India
Expanding into the World.
Hail, mother of religions, lotus, scenic beauty,and sages!
Thy wide doors are open,
Welcoming God’s true sons through all ages.
Where Ganges, woods, Himalayan caves, and
men dream God –
I am hallowed; my body touched that sod.

Newton’s laws of motion

Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. More precisely, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn’t exist. These three laws have been expressed in several ways, over nearly three centuries,[1] and can be summarised as follows:

Newton’s first law

File:First law.ogv

Explanation of Newton’s first law and reference frames (MIT Course 8.01)[14][15]

The first law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero, then the velocity of the object is constant. Velocity is a vector quantity which expresses both the object’s speed and the direction of its motion; therefore, the statement that the object’s velocity is constant is a statement that both its speed and the direction of its motion are constant.

The first law can be stated mathematically when the mass is a non-zero constant, as,

{\displaystyle \sum \mathbf {F} =0\;\Leftrightarrow \;{\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}=0.}\sum \mathbf {F} =0\;\Leftrightarrow \;{\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}=0.


  • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless a force acts upon it.
  • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless a force acts upon it.

This is known as uniform motion. An object continues to do whatever it happens to be doing unless a force is exerted upon it. If it is at rest, it continues in a state of rest (demonstrated when a tablecloth is skilfully whipped from under dishes on a tabletop and the dishes remain in their initial state of rest). If an object is moving, it continues to move without turning or changing its speed. This is evident in space probes that continuously move in outer space. Changes in motion must be imposed against the tendency of an object to retain its state of motion. In the absence of net forces, a moving object tends to move along a straight line path indefinitely.

Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame, relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed.[11][16] Newton’s first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. Thus, a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. In this sense, the first law can be restated as:

In every material universe, the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. That is, a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it.[17]

Newton’s first and second laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame, i.e. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity.[18]

Newton’s second law


Explanation of Newton’s second law, using gravity as an example (MIT OCW)[19]

The second law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force applied, and this change in momentum takes place in the direction of the applied force.

{\displaystyle \mathbf {F} ={\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {p} }{\mathrm {d} t}}={\frac {\mathrm {d} (m\mathbf {v} )}{\mathrm {d} t}}.}\mathbf {F} ={\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {p} }{\mathrm {d} t}}={\frac {\mathrm {d} (m\mathbf {v} )}{\mathrm {d} t}}.

The second law can also be stated in terms of an object’s acceleration. Since Newton’s second law is valid only for constant-mass systems,[20][21][22] m can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Thus,

{\displaystyle \mathbf {F} =m\,{\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}=m\mathbf {a} ,}\mathbf {F} =m\,{\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}=m\mathbf {a} ,

where F is the net force applied, m is the mass of the body, and a is the body’s acceleration. Thus, the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. In other words, if a body is accelerating, then there is a force on it. An application of this notation is the derivation of G Subscript C.

Consistent with the first law, the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction, even if there is no change in its magnitude; such is the case with uniform circular motion. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero, the momentum of the body is constant. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum.

Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).

Newton’s second law is an approximation that is increasingly worse at high speeds because of relativistic effects.


An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt, and it is given by[23][24]

{\displaystyle \mathbf {J} =\int _{\Delta t}\mathbf {F} \,\mathrm {d} t.}\mathbf {J} =\int _{\Delta t}\mathbf {F} \,\mathrm {d} t.

Since force is the time derivative of momentum, it follows that

{\displaystyle \mathbf {J} =\Delta \mathbf {p} =m\Delta \mathbf {v} .}\mathbf {J} =\Delta \mathbf {p} =m\Delta \mathbf {v} .

This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton’s wording of the second law.[25]

Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts.[26]

Variable-mass systems

Variable-mass systems, like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases, are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law;[21] that is, the following formula is wrong:[22]

{\displaystyle \mathbf {F} _{\mathrm {net} }={\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}{\big [}m(t)\mathbf {v} (t){\big ]}=m(t){\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}+\mathbf {v} (t){\frac {\mathrm {d} m}{\mathrm {d} t}}.\qquad \mathrm {(wrong)} }\mathbf {F} _{\mathrm {net} }={\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}{\big [}m(t)\mathbf {v} (t){\big ]}=m(t){\frac {\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} }{\mathrm {d} t}}+\mathbf {v} (t){\frac {\mathrm {d} m}{\mathrm {d} t}}.\qquad \mathrm {(wrong)}

The falsehood of this formula can be seen by noting that it does not respect Galilean invariance: a variable-mass object with F = 0 in one frame will be seen to have F ≠ 0 in another frame.[20] The correct equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by applying the second law to the entire, constant-mass system consisting of the body and its ejected/accreted mass; the result is[20]

{\displaystyle \mathbf {F} +\mathbf {u} {\frac {\mathrm {d} m}{\mathrm {d} t}}=m{\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} \over \mathrm {d} t}}\mathbf {F} +\mathbf {u} {\frac {\mathrm {d} m}{\mathrm {d} t}}=m{\mathrm {d} \mathbf {v} \over \mathrm {d} t}

where u is the velocity of the escaping or incoming mass relative to the body. From this equation one can derive the equation of motion for a varying mass system, for example, the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation. Under some conventions, the quantity u dm/dt on the left-hand side, which represents the advection of momentum, is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass, such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. Then, by substituting the definition of acceleration, the equation becomes F = ma.

Newton’s third law


An illustration of Newton’s third law in which two skaters push against each other. The first skater on the left exerts a normal force N12 on the second skater directed towards the right, and the second skater exerts a normal force N21 on the first skater directed towards the left.
The magnitudes of both forces are equal, but they have opposite directions, as dictated by Newton’s third law.


A description of Newton’s third law and contact forces[27]

The third law states that all forces between two objects exist in equal magnitude and opposite direction: if one object A exerts a force FA on a second object B, then Bsimultaneously exerts a force FB on A, and the two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction: FA = −FB.[28] The third law means that all forces are interactionsbetween different bodies,[29][30] or different regions within one body, and thus that there is no such thing as a force that is not accompanied by an equal and opposite force. In some situations, the magnitude and direction of the forces are determined entirely by one of the two bodies, say Body A; the force exerted by Body A on Body B is called the “action”, and the force exerted by Body B on Body A is called the “reaction”. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law, with FA called the “action” and FB the “reaction”. In other situations the magnitude and directions of the forces are determined jointly by both bodies and it isn’t necessary to identify one force as the “action” and the other as the “reaction”. The action and the reaction are simultaneous, and it does not matter which is called the action and which is called reaction; both forces are part of a single interaction, and neither force exists without the other.[28]

The two forces in Newton’s third law are of the same type (e.g., if the road exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car’s tires, then it is also a frictional force that Newton’s third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road).

From a conceptual standpoint, Newton’s third law is seen when a person walks: they push against the floor, and the floor pushes against the person. Similarly, the tires of a car push against the road while the road pushes back on the tires—the tires and road simultaneously push against each other. In swimming, a person interacts with the water, pushing the water backward, while the water simultaneously pushes the person forward—both the person and the water push against each other. The reaction forces account for the motion in these examples. These forces depend on friction; a person or car on ice, for example, may be unable to exert the action force to produce the needed reaction force.

Sachin tendulkar

Tendulkar was born at Nirmal Nursing Home in DadarBombay on 24 April 1973.[citation needed] His father, Ramesh Tendulkar, was a well-known Marathi novelist and his mother, Rajni, worked in the insurance industry.[24] Ramesh named Tendulkar after his favourite music director, Sachin Dev Burman. Tendulkar has three elder siblings: two half-brothers Nitin and Ajit, and a half-sister Savita. They were Ramesh’s children from his first marriage.[citation needed]

Tendulkar played as a youngster with his brother, Ajit, for Sahitya Sahawas society’s cricket team at Bandra East. Ajit is credited by Sachin for playing a pivotal role in his life.[25]Ramakant Achrekar was impressed with Tendulkar’s talent and advised him to shift his schooling to Sharadashram Vidyamandir (English) High School,[1] a school at Dadar which had a dominant cricket team and had produced many notable cricketers. Prior to this, Tendulkar had attended the Indian Education Society’s New English School in Bandra (East).[26] He was also coached under the guidance of Achrekar at Shivaji Park in the mornings and evenings.[27] Tendulkar would practice for hours on end in the nets. If he became exhausted, Achrekar would put a one-rupee coin on the top of the stumps, and the bowler who dismissed Tendulkar would get the coin. If Tendulkar passed the whole session without getting dismissed, the coach would give him the coin. Tendulkar now considers the 13 coins he won then as some of his most prized possessions.[28] He moved in with his aunt and uncle, who lived near Shivaji Park, during this period, due to his hectic schedule.[26]

Sachin Tendulkar and his wife Anjali

Meanwhile, at school, he developed a reputation as a child prodigy. He had become a common conversation point in local cricketing circles, where there were suggestions already that he would become one of the greats. Sachin consistently featured in the school team in the Matunga Gujarati Seva Mandal (MGSM) Shield.[29] Besides school cricket, he also played club cricket, initially representing John Bright Cricket Club in Bombay’s premier club cricket tournament, the Kanga League,[26] and later went on to play for the Cricket Club of India.[30] In 1987, at the age of 14, he attended the MRF Pace Foundation in Madras (now Chennai) to train as a fast bowler, but Australian fast bowler Dennis Lillee, who took a world record 355 Test wickets, was unimpressed, suggesting that Tendulkar focus on his batting instead.[31] On 20 January 1987, he also turned out as substitute for Imran Khan‘s side in an exhibition game at Brabourne Stadium in Bombay, to mark the golden jubilee of Cricket Club of India.[32] A couple of months later, former Indian batsman Sunil Gavaskargave him a pair of his own ultra light pads and consoled him to not get disheartened for not getting the Bombay Cricket Association’s “Best junior cricket award” (He was 14 years that time). “It was the greatest source of encouragement for me,” Tendulkar said nearly 20 years later after surpassing Gavaskar’s world record of 34 Test centuries.[33][34] Sachin served as a ball boy in the 1987 Cricket World Cup when India played against England in the semifinal in Bombay.[35][36] In his season in 1988, Tendulkar scored a century in every innings he played. He was involved in an unbroken 664-run partnership in a Lord Harris Shield inter-school game against St. Xavier’s High School in 1988 with his friend and teammate Vinod Kambli, who would also go on to represent India. The destructive pair reduced one bowler to tears and made the rest of the opposition unwilling to continue the game. Tendulkar scored 326 (not out) in this innings and scored over a thousand runs in the tournament.[37] This was a record partnership in any form of cricket until 2006, when it was broken by two under-13 batsmen in a match held at Hyderabad

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Harry Potter








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arry Potter is a British-American film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling. The series is distributed by Warner Bros. and consists of eight fantasy films, beginning with Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001) and culminating with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 (2011).[2][3] A spin-off prequel series will consist of five films, starting with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (2016). The Fantastic Beasts films mark the beginning of a shared media franchise known as J. K. Rowling’s Wizarding World.[4]

The series was mainly produced by David Heyman, and stars Daniel RadcliffeRupert Grint, and Emma Watson as the three leading characters: Harry PotterRon Weasley, and Hermione Granger. Four directors worked on the series: Chris ColumbusAlfonso CuarónMike Newell, and David Yates.[5] The screenplays were written by Steve Kloves, with the exception of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2007), which was written by Michael Goldenberg. Production took over ten years to complete, with the main story arcfollowing Harry Potter’s quest to overcome his arch-enemy Lord Voldemort.[6]

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the seventh and final novel in the series, was adapted into two feature-length parts.[7] Part 1 was released in November 2010, and Part 2was released in July 2011.[8][9]

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004) is the only film in the series not among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, the highest-grossing film in the series and one of 30 films to gross over $1 billion, ranking at number eight.[10] Without inflation adjustment, it is the second highest-grossing film series with $7.7 billion in worldwide receipts.