FIRST GENERATION OF COMPUTERS

THE First Genertion

 

Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the “father of the computer”, he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer
Image result for who made the first computer
WHEN WAS FIRST COMPUTER
he first mechanical computer, created by Charles Babbage in 1822, doesn’t really resemble what most would consider a computer today. Therefore, this document has been created with a listing of each of the computer firsts, starting with the Difference Engine and leading up to the computers we use today.
WHERE WAS FIRST COMPUTER MADE
The ENIAC was invented by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania and began construction in 1943 and was not completed until 1946. It occupied about 1,800 square feet and used about 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighing almost 50 tons.Oct 30, 2017

ROCKS

Hi i am Sai i want to tell some information about rocks.

 

What are rocks definition?
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth’s outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock.
Image result for rocks

WHAT IS A ROCK?

To geologists, a rock is a natural substance composed of solid crystals of different minerals that have been fused together into a solid lump.

The minerals may or may not have been formed at the same time. What matters is that natural processes glued them all together.

TYPES OF ROCKS

There are three basic types of rock: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

VIRAT KOHLI

Virat Kohli ( born 5 November 1988) is an Indian international cricketer who currently captains the India national team. A right-handed batsman, often regarded as one of the best batsmen in the world, Kohli is ranked as one of world’s most famous athletes by ESPN[3] and one of the most valuable athlete brands by Forbes. He plays for the Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League (IPL), and has been the team’s captain since 2013.

Born and raised in Delhi, Kohli represented the city’s cricket team at various age-group levels before making his first-class debut in 2006. He captained India Under-19s to victory at the 2008 Under-19 World Cup in Malaysia, and a few months later, made his ODI debut for India against Sri Lanka at the age of 19. Initially having played as a reserve batsman in the Indian team, he soon established himself as a regular in the ODI middle-order and was part of the squad that won the 2011 World Cup. He made his Test debut in 2011 and shrugged off the tag of “ODI specialist” by 2013 with Test hundreds in Australia and South Africa.[4] Having reached the number one spot in the ICC rankings for ODI batsmen for the first time in 2013,[5] Kohli also found success in the Twenty20 format, winning the Man of the Tournament twice at the ICC World Twenty20 (in 2014 and 2016). In 2014, he became the top-ranked T20I batsman in the ICC rankings and holds the position, as of December 2017.[6] Since October 2017, he has also been the top-ranked ODI batsman in the world.

NATURAL DISASTERS

TSUNAMIS

.Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer.[5] Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves, although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because tsunamis are not tidal in nature. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called “internal wave train“.[6] Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadlies

 

 

CYCLONE

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.[1][2]Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure.[3][4] The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale (the synoptic scale). Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale.[5] Mesocyclonestornadoes and dust devils lie within the smaller mesoscale.[6] Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune.[7][8] Cyclogenesis describes the process of cyclone formation and intensification.[9] Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone’s track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream

 

DROUGHT

drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days.[1] It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region[2] and harm to the local economy.[3] Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour

 

 

 

 

TECHNOLOGY OF LASER

This is some information about technology of laser-“Laser light” redirects here. For laser light show, see laser lighting display. For the song, see Laser light (song). For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation).

A laser beam used for welding.

Red (660 & 635 n m), green (532 & 520 n m) and blue-violet (445 & 405 n m) laser sight 

laser is a device that emits through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation“.The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schaw low.

A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently, spatially and temporally. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances (collimation), enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum, i.e., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond.

Among their many applications, lasers are used in optical disk driveslaser printers, and bar code scannersDNA sequencing instrumentsfiber-optic and free-space optical communicationlaser surgery and skin treatments; cutting and welding materials; military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed; and laser lighting displays in entertainment.

                                                              THANK YOU 

ROCKS AND TYPES

INFORMATION  ABOUT ROCK

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartzfeldspar and biotite. The Earth’s outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock.

Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1]

Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneoussedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.

ROCKS ARE DIVIDED INTO 3 TYPES.THEY ARE AS FOLLOW

  • IGNEOUS ROCK.[
  • SEDIMENTARY ROCK
  • METAMORPHIC ROCK

 

FORMATION IGNEOUS ROCK

Image result for information about igneous rocks
Igneous rock is formed when magma cools and solidifies, it may do this above or below the Earth’s surface. Magma can be forced into rocks, blown out in volcanic explosions or forced to the surface as lava. The atoms and molecules of melted minerals are what make up magma.

 

INFORMATION OF SEDIMENTARY  ROCKS

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth’s  surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by waterwindicemass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation. Sedimentation may also occur as minerals precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension

METAMORPHIC ROCKS

metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes. Examples of these rock types include marble, slate, gneiss, schist.

Image result for metamorphic rocks

NATURAL DISATERS

natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.

tornado is a violent rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. The most violenttornadoes are capable of tremendous destruction with wind speeds of up to 300 mph. They can destroy large buildings, uproot trees and hurl vehicles hundreds of yards.Image result for information about natural disasters

AIR AND WATER

         

   AIR                                                                                                                                                          AIR is the mixture of gases around us.                                                         AIR EXERTS PRESSURE                                                                                   

AIR HAS WEIGHT

WATER

 

Water is used in various ways.

DRINKING

COOKING

WASHING

LATEST TECHNOLOGY – DEFENCE AND SPACE

DEFENCE AND SPACE

The future is progressing very fast. There are many things which are invented in many  fields like information tecnology ,automobiles ,etc.

 

The Ministry of Defence (Raksha Mantralay) (abbreviated as MoD) is charged with co-ordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces. The Ministry has the largest budget among the federal departments of India and currently maintains fifth in military expenditure[2] among countries of the world.[2]

The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the country. The Ministry of Defence provides policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibility in the context of the defence of the country. The Armed Forces (including Indian ArmyIndian Air ForceIndian Navy) and Indian Coast Guard under the Defence Ministry are primarily responsible for ensuring the territorial integrity of the nation.

At present, the undergoing new creation of National Defence University, for training of military officials and concerned civilian officials, will be administered and overseen by Ministry of Defence.

The Ministry organises and runs Republic Day celebrations and parade every year in January, hosting a chief guest.

 

Today ,there are many weapons and missiles created for the purpose of safety.We can read many successess on the missiles and many failures too. Today in India the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation are working on the fields of defence  and space.

SPACE

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, /ˈɪsr/) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore. Its vision is to “harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration.[3]

Formed in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) established in 1962 by the efforts of independent India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and scientist Vikram Sarabhai. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space activities in India.[4] It is managed by the Department of Space, which reports to the Prime Minister of India.

ISRO built India’s first satelliteAryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. It was named after the Mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have launched numerous communications satellites and earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO successfully used an indigenous cryogenic engine in a GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.

ISRO sent one lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 one Mars orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission, which successfully entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its first attempt, and ISRO the fourth space agency in the world as well as the first space agency in Asia to successfully reach Mars orbit. On 18 June 2016 ISRO successfully set a record with a launch of 20 satellites in a single payload, one being a satellite from Google. On 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37) and created a world record. ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this launch, ISRO became capable of launching 4 ton heavy satellites.

Future plans include the development of ULV, development of a reusable launch vehiclehuman spaceflightcontrolled soft lunar landing, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.

DEFENCE

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military‘s research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of DefenceGovernment of India.

With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India’s largest and most diverse research organisation. The organisation includes around 5,000 scientists belonging to the Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS) and about 25,000 other scientific, technical and supporting personnel.

 

The PSLV which was recently launched by India containing 104 satellites was really successful.Dhanush is a variant of the surface-to-surface or ship-to-ship Prithvi II missile, which has been developed for the Indian Navy. It is capable of carrying both conventional as well as nuclear warheads with pay-load capacity of 500 kg-1000 kg and can strike targets in the range of 350 km. The Missile was test-fired successfully on 5 October 2012, on 23 November 2013, 9 April 2015, and 24 November 2015 from Indian Navy ship INS Subhadra (P51) in the Bay of Bengal off the Orissa coast. The Dhanush missile can be used as an anti-ship weapon as well as for destroying land targets depending on the range.

FOR MORE INFO PLEASE WATCH

FOR ENTERTAINMENT WATCH –

NATURAL DISASTERS

  • Natural disasters are a calamity caused by nature.
  • There are different natural disasters that take place and have different causes and precautions.

Some of them are:- EARTHQUAKES, FLOODS, TORNADOES, TSUNAMIS, CYCLONES ETC.

EARTHQUAKES-  It is a sudden tremor caused due to deep movements inside the Earth’s surface. In this, the ground shakes and all the things on the ground shakes. There are certain precautions that have to be followed during an earthquake:-

  • Run out of the building immediately.
  • go out and stand on the higher grounds.
  • even after the earthquake is over don’t go to your building because there can be certain aftershocks.
  • RITCHER SCALE WILL HELP TO MEASURE THE INTENSITY OF AN EARTHQUAKE.
  •        
  • Image result for images of richter scale
  • This is the images of a ritcher scale.

FLOODS- Due to heavy rains, rivers and lakes fill up with water and overflow out of the banks causing floods. There are certain precautions to help prevent it:-

Image result for images of floods

PRECAUTIONS:-

  • Always check a good weather forecast system.
  • run away to higher grounds.

TSUNAMIS-  IN  A TSUNAMI IT OCCURS BECAUSE OF UNDERGROUND EARTHQUAKES.

Image result for images of TSUNAMIS

run away to higher ground where water cant reach you

THANKYOU!!

BY-SHRADDHA IYER

Image result for IMAGES OF THANKYOU