Block Diagram

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block diagram is a diagram of a system in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks. They are heavily used in engineering in hardware design, electronic design, software design, and process flow diagrams.W

What is a block diagram of a computer?

Block Diagram of Computer and its Explanation Block Diagram of Computer. Acomputer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. *InputUnit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem.

Usage

As an example, a block diagram of a radio is not expected to show each and every connection and dial and switch, but the schematic diagram is. The schematic diagram of a radio does not show the width of each connection in the printed circuit board, but the layout diagram does.

To make an analogy to the map making world, a block diagram is similar to a highway map of an entire nation. The major cities (functions) are listed but the minor county roads and city streets are not. When troubleshooting, this high level map is useful in narrowing down and isolating where a problem or fault is.Block diagrams rely on the principle of the black box where the contents are hidden from view either to avoid being distracted by the details or because the details are not known. We know what goes in, we know what goes out, but we can’t see how the box does its work.

In electrical engineering, a design will often begin as a very high level block diagram, becoming more and more detailed block diagrams as the design progresses, finally ending in block diagrams detailed enough that each individual block can be easily implemented (at which point the block diagram is also a schematic diagram). This is known as top down design.Geometric shapes are often used in the diagram to aid interpretation and clarify meaning of the process or model. The geometric shapes are connected by lines to indicate association and direction/order of traversal. Each engineering discipline has their own meaning for each shape. Block diagrams are used in every discipline of engineering. They are also a valuable source of concept building and educationally beneficial in non-engineering disciplines.

Algorithms

An algorithm (pronounced AL-go-rith-um) is a procedure or formula for solving a problem, based on conducting a sequence of specified actions. A computer program can be viewed as an elaborate algorithm. In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm usually means a small procedure that solves a recurrent problem.

An encryption algorithm transforms data according to specified actions to protect it. A secret key algorithm such as the U.S. Department of Defense’s Data Encryption Standard (DES), for example, uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data. As long as the algorithm is sufficiently sophisticated, no one lacking the key can decrypt the data.

The word algorithm derives from the name of the mathematician, Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, who was part of the royal court in Baghdad and who lived from about 780 to 850. Al-Khwarizmi’s work is the likely source for the word algebra as well.

Euclidean algorithm

In mathematics, the Euclidean algorithm, or Euclid’s algorithm, is an efficient method for computing the greatest common divisor(GCD) of two numbers, the largest number that divides both of them without leaving a remainder. It is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, who first described it in Euclid’s Elements (c. 300 BC). It is an example of an algorithm, a step-by-step procedure for performing a calculation according to well-defined rules, and is one of the oldest algorithms in common use. It can be used to reduce fractions to their simplest form, and is a part of many other number-theoretic and cryptographic calculations.

The Euclidean algorithm is based on the principle that the greatest common divisor of two numbers does not change if the larger number is replaced by its difference with the smaller number. For example, 21 is the GCD of 252 and 105 (as 252 = 21 × 12 and 105 = 21 × 5), and the same number 21 is also the GCD of 105 and 252 − 105 = 147. Since this replacement reduces the larger of the two numbers, repeating this process gives successively smaller pairs of numbers until the two numbers become equal. When that occurs, they are the GCD of the original two numbers. By reversing the steps, the GCD can be expressed as a sum of the two original numbers each multiplied by a positive or negative integer, e.g., 21 = 5 × 105 + (−2) × 252. The fact that the GCD can always be expressed in this way is known as Bézout’s identity.

An animation of the quicksort algorithm sorting an array of randomized values. The red bars mark the pivot element; at the start of the animation, the element farthest to the right hand side is chosen as the pivot.

 

EXAMPLE OF AN  ALGORITHM:

 

1599 = 650×2 + 299
 650 = 299×2 + 52
 299 = 52×5 + 39
 52 = 39×1 + 13
 39 = 13×3 + 0

 

Real Humanoid Robot

“CB2” — JST ERATO – Humanoid robot

 

“CB2” is a robot created to study early childhood development. The robot is covered with cameras and touch sensors, allowing researchers to collect data on it, and figure out how young humans learn to move, walk, and control their bodies.

This is an example of a robot that fails on the final hurdle. This robot is super impressive. Its underlying skeleton even looks pretty inoffensive. However, for some reason, the designers felt the need to coat the robot in a flaccid, grey-white rubber skin. The result is high-grade, unleaded nightmare fuel. It doesn’t help that the researchers succeeded in getting the robot to move like a baby, flailing limply at researchers and struggling to stand up.

 

Review of a book-“Son of Slappy”

About the Author:

R. L. Stine at the 2008 Texas Book Festival

Robert Lawrence Stine (born October 8, 1943), better known by his pen name R. L. Stine and sometimes known as Jovial Bob Stine and Eric Affabee, is an American novelist, short story writer, television producer, screenwriter, and executive editor. He has been referred to as the “Stephen King of children’s literature” and is the author of hundreds of horror fiction novels, including the books in the Fear StreetGoosebumpsRotten School, Mostly Ghostly, and The Nightmare Room series. Some of his other works include a Space Cadets trilogy, two Hark gamebooks, and dozens of joke books. As of 2008, Stine’s books have sold over 400 million copies.

About his book-“Son of Slappy”

Characters:

  1. Jackson Stander
  2. Rachel Stander
  3. Mr and Mrs Stander
  4. Froggy
  5. Nikki
  6. Mrs Lawson
  7. Mr. Gurewitz
  8. Dr. Marx
  9. Noah
  10. Clay Dobbs
  11. Miss Hathaway
  12. Mr. Tallen
  13. Alyssa
  14. Mr. Haggerty and Mrs. Haggerty
  15. Mrs. Pearson
  16. Miles Naylor
  17. Aunt Ada and Uncle Josh
  18. Slappy the
  19. Edgar
  20. Grandpa Whitman
  21. Mickey Haggert

Description:

Jackson Stander is every parent’s dream. He doesn’t get into trouble, he always does his homework, and he never ever lies. His teachers all trust him completely. He even volunteers at the local Youth Center. But that was all before Jackson came across an evil ventriloquist . Now he must deal with Slappy wreaking havoc on his family and friends. Jackson will soon see that two Slappys are not better than one!

Plot:

Jackson Stander is a nice kid who does well in school and even volunteers at the local YC, with a mean sister named Rachel, are sent to visit their Grandpa Whitman’s house. After the visit, Jackson finds Slappy in his suitcase. Edgar, Grandpa Whitman’s housekeeper, tells Jackson to get rid of the , but he doesn’t, since it belongs to his grandfather and could be fun to bring at the YC.

Jackson finds the magic words, and he reads them. Later in the book, Jackson begins to do really bad things to his friends, but he doesn’t know why.

It turns out that he’s being controlled by Slappy, who has come to life. When he goes to the YC, Slappy makes Jackson drag Mrs. Lawson across the floor. Then, Jackson thought that maybe the only way to defeat Slappy, is to read the words on the card a second time, but when he pulls the card out of his pocket, it’s blank on both sides, just a blank piece of paper.

A few weeks later, his parents have grounded him and stopped giving him his allowance, and he’s banned from the YC. He asked his parents to get rid of Slappy, but they refused and told him to wait until Grandpa Whitman comes to visit, so Jackson puts Slappy in a suitcase, later, he hears his sister talking to someone.

Rachel was speaking with Slappy, it turned out they were working together all along, in fact, Rachel was the one who switched Slappy’s spell with a blank card. In the end, Slappy turns to Jackson and says, “Guess what? We know how to deal with eavesdroppers.” And then, Jackson hears a chirping sound, which was a signal sent by Slappy, to hypnotize Jackson.

What I like about the story:

This story is filled with suspence and is very intresting. The part I love is when Jackson realizes his sister sent the doll behind him to make him bad and rude to everyone.

Magnetism

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WHAT IS MAGNETISM?

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magntized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Natural iron ore is called magnetite, Fe3O4.

HISTORY OF MAGNETISM

Magnetism was first discovered in the ancient world, when people noticed that lodestones, naturally magnetized pieces of the mineral magnetite, could attract iron.The word magnet comes from the Greek term μαγνῆτις λίθος magnētis lithos, “the Magnesian stone, lodestone.” In ancient Greece, Aristotle attributed the first of what could be called a scientific discussion of magnetism to the philosopher Thales of Miletus, who lived from about 625 BC to about 545 BC. Around the same time, in ancient India, the Indian surgeon Sushruta was the first to make use of the magnet for surgical purposes.

SOURCES OF MAGNETISM:

Drawing of a medical treatment using magnetic brushes. Charles Jacque 1843, France.{above}

 

  1. Spin magnetic moments of elementary particles. The magnetic properties of materials are mainly due to the magnetic moments of their atoms’ orbital electrons. The magnetic moments of the nuclei of atoms are typically thousands of times smaller than the electrons’ magnetic moments, so they are negligible in the context of the magnetization of materials. Nuclear magnetic moments are nevertheless very important in other contexts, particularly in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  2. Electic current.

A magnetic quadrupole {above}.

Science Project-Making of Snow!

This is a great snow making recipe.  Mix 2 1/2 cups of baking soda with 1/2 cup of white conditioner.  This snow will also feel cool to the touch but has less of a power feel.  It is feels more like a wet snow.

Measure out the ingredients…

Mix however you want, we like to use our hands but some kids don’t like the texture, so I always have spoons for them to use.

Keep mixing….

it will begin to stiffen up…..

JIBO

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While it would be nice to have a robot that can organise your home office and ensure your children are ready for school, that’s a long way off. However, Jibo is an excellent example of how robots can become our personal assistants. Dubbed “the world’s first social robot for the home”, it recognises the faces of its owners and can do things like provide you with reminders and take photos at family celebrations. After raising more than $3 million through crowdfunding, the robot is set to go on sale later this year for $749 (£529).

Jibo experiences the world and reacts with expressive movements and responses. He loves to be around people and engage with people, and the relationships he forms are the single most important thing to him. He’ll gladly tell you the weather or snap a photo, he’ll also a joke while he’s at it.

He’s wired differently.

Jibo is powered by face and voice recognition technology, so he remembers people and builds real relationships with everyone he meets. And thanks to our team of character designers (and his 3-axis motor system), he’s got the moves to match the personality. He’ll perk up when you say something, or do a 360 spin… just to show you he can.

He’s a pretty helpful, friendly roommate, too.

Jibo is proactive and spontaneous. He’ll know when you walk into a room, and he might even surprise you by saying “hi”. You can ask him anything and tell him everything. He fits into your life, just the way you want him to.

Jibo

 

“BLUEBEARD”- BY ANDREW LANG

 

Bluebeard is a wealthy and powerful, yet frighteningly , nobleman who has been married several times to beautiful women who have all mysteriously vanished. When Bluebeard visits his neighbor and asks to marry one of his daughters, the girls are terrified. After hosting a wonderful banquet, he chooses the youngest daughter to be his wife – against her will – and she goes to live with him in his rich and luxurious palace in the countryside, away from her family.

Bluebeard announces that he must leave for the country and gives the keys of the château (castle) to his wife. She is able to open any door in the house with them, each of which contain some of his riches, except for an underground chamber that he strictly forbids her to enter lest she suffer his wrath. He then goes away and leaves the house and the keys in her hands. She invites her sister, Anne, and her friends and cousins over for a party. However, she is eventually overcome with the desire to see what the forbidden room holds; and she sneaks away from the party and ventures into the room.

She immediately discovers the room is filled with blood and the murdered corpses of Bluebeard’s former wives hung on hooks from the walls. Horrified, she drops the key in the blood and flees the room. She tries to wash the blood from the key, but the key is magical and the blood cannot be removed. Fearing for her life, she reveals her husband’s secret to her visiting sister, and they plan to both flee the next morning, but Bluebeard unexpectedly comes back and finds the bloody key. In a blind rage, he threatens to her on the spot, but she asks for one last prayer with her sister Anne. At the last moment, as Bluebeard is about to deliver the fatal , the brothers of the wife and her sister Anne arrive and Bluebeard. The wife inherits his fortune and castle, and has the dead wives buried. She uses the fortune to have her other siblings married, and eventually remarries herself, to a man she loves, and moves on from her horrible experience with Bluebeard.

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“THE RED SHOES”- BY HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN

 

A peasant girl named Karen is adopted by a rich old lady after her mother’s death and grows up vain and spoiled. Before her adoption, Karen had a rough pair of red shoes; now she has her adoptive mother buy her a pair of red shoes fit for a princess. Karen is so enamored of her new shoes that she wears them to church, but the old lady scolds her: it’s highly improper and she must only wear black shoes in church from now on. But next Sunday, Karen cannot resist the urge to put the red shoes on again. As she is about to enter the church, she meets a mysterious old soldier with a red beard. “Oh, what beautiful shoes for dancing,” the soldier says. “Never come off when you dance,” he tells the shoes, and he taps the sole of each with his hand. After church, Karen cannot resist taking a few dance steps, and off she goes, as though the shoes controlled her, but she finally manages to take them off. One day, after her adoptive mother becomes ill, Karen leaves her alone and goes off to a ball in town in her red shoes. She begins to dance, but this time the shoes won’t come off. They continue to dance, night and day, rain or shine, through fields and meadows, and through brambles and briers that tear at Karen’s limbs. She can’t even attend her adoptive mother’s funeral. An angel appears to her, bearing a sword, and condemns her to dance even after she dies, as a warning to vain children everywhere. Karen begs for mercy but the red shoes take her away before she hears the angel’s reply. Karen finds an executioner and asks him to chop off her feet. He does so but the shoes continue to dance, even with Karen’s amputated feet inside them. The executioner gives her a pair of wooden feet and crutches, and teaches her the criminals’ psalm. Thinking that she has suffered enough for the red shoes, Karen decides to go to church so people can see her. Yet her amputated feet, still in the red shoes, dance before her, barring the way. The following Sunday she tries again, thinking she is at least as good as the others in church, but again the dancing red shoes bar the way. Karen gets a job as a maid in the parsonage, but when Sunday comes she dares not go to church. Instead she sits alone at home and prays to God for help. The angel reappears, now bearing a spray of roses, and gives Karen the mercy she asked for: her heart becomes so filled with sunshine, peace, and joy that it bursts. Her soul flies on sunshine to Heaven, where no one mentions the red shoes.

MILO THE- “HELPING ROBOT”!

Milo

Milo is a robot developed by American humanoid manufacturer Robokind to support children with Autism. Two-feet tall, it’s been designed specifically for parents, therapists, and educators to teach children social skills.

The robot displays different emotions which users have to identify using an iPad. While this happens, cameras built into Milo’s eyes monitor the child’s behaviour to provide feedback, and the children also wear a chest pack that looks out for changes in heart rate. That way, whoever’s working with the children can address problems.

The firm claims that children working with Milo have an engagement rate of 70-90%, compared to 3-10% with other therapy methods.

Milo Infographic

Using the Robots4Autism program, individuals with ASD learn to:

  • Tune in on emotions
  • Express empathy
  • Act more appropriately in social situations
  • Self-motivate
  • Generalize in the population

The Robots4Autism lessons are designed to teach social behaviors and emotional identification to learners ages 5-17 who meet the Prerequisite Skills. To determine if the curriculum is appropriate for your child, please read the prerequisite skills needed.

Milo delivers lessons verbally. As he speaks, symbols are displayed on his chest screen that will help your learner better understand what he is saying. Throughout the lessons, Milo will ask your learner to watch four to five second video clips on the student tablet. The videos show learners displaying the skills or behaviors both correctly and incorrectly that Milo is teaching. Your learner will be asked “yes” or “no” questions to determine if the learners in the video are doing the behaviors right or wrong.

It is recommended that your learner work with Milo, along with an educator or therapist, for 30 to 60 minutes at least three times a week.

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