UNIVERSE

Universe 

Hi, today I am going to tell about universe.

The Universe is everything we can touch, feel, sense, measure or detect. It includes living things, planets, stars, galaxies, dust clouds, light, and even time. Before the birth of the Universe, time, space and matter did not exist.

The Universe contains billions of galaxies, each containing millions or billions of stars. The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Space is also filled with radiation (e.g. light and heat), magnetic fields and high energy particles (e.g. cosmic rays).

The Universe is incredibly huge. It would take a modern jet fighter more than a million years to reach the nearest star to the Sun. Travelling at the speed of light (300,000 km per second), it would take 100,000 years to cross our Milky Way galaxy alone.

No one knows the exact size of the Universe, because we cannot see the edge – if there is one. All we do know is that the visible Universe is at least 93 billion light years across. (A light year is the distance light travels in one year – about 9 trillion km.)

The Universe has not always been the same size. Scientists believe it began in a Big , which took place nearly 14 billion years ago. Since then, the Universe has been expanding outward at very high speed. So the area of space we now see is billions of times bigger than it was when the Universe was very young. The galaxies are also moving further apart as the space between them expands.

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RADIO

RADIO

  • Radio owes its development to two other inventions: the telegraph and the telephone. All three technologies are closely related. Radio technology actually began as “wireless telegraphy.”

    The term “radio” can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content playing from it. In any case, it all started with the discovery of “radio waves” or electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air.

  • Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts and more.
  • During the 1860s, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwellpredicted the existence of radio waves. In 1886, German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves, similar to those of light and heat.

    In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated “wireless telegraphy.” Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move. This marked the first known instance of wireless aerial communication.

    But it was Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, who proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899, he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter “S,” which was telegraphed from England to Newfoundland.

  • This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902.

    In addition to Marconi, two of his contemporaries, Nikola Tesla and Nathan Stufflefield, took out patents for wireless radio transmitters. Nikola Tesla is now credited with being the first person to patent radio technology. The Supreme Court overturned Marconi’s patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla’s.

FIRE DRILL IN MY SCHOOL

 FIRE DRILL IN MY SCHOOL

HI GUYS !!!!!!

TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ALL ABOUT EXPERIENCING MY SCHOOL’S FIRE DRILL.

MY SCHOOL HAD A FIRE DRILL ,TODAY 9 MARCH 2018 .

IT IS A DRILL WHERE THE SCHOOL’S STAFF TAKE ALL THE CHILDREN OUT OF THE SCHOOL AT THE SCHOOL GROUND BY HEARING A BELL OR .

THERE IS A FIRE DRILL IN A SCHOOL BECAUSE , IF THERE IS FIRE IN SCHOOL THEN HOW TO TAKE THE CHILDREN OUT OF THE SCHOOL.

THERE IS A PERSON WHO COMES IN OUR SCHOOL AND TELLS US ABOUT FIRE , HOW TO ESTINGUISH IT AND HOW TO TAKE SAFETY .

OUR SCHOOL TOOK 5 MINUTES 55 SECONDS TO TAKE OUT ALL THE CHILDREN FROM THE SCHOOL.

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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

  • Advancement in the science and technology in many areas has made the lives of people more advance than the ancient time. Advancement in the science and technology is directly and positively affecting the people’s way of living on one hand however it is also affecting indirectly and negatively on the people’s health on the other hand. New inventions in the field of science and technology are very necessary in such a modern world for a country to be strong and well developed country than other countries. In this competitive world, we need more technology to go ahead and become a successful person in the life.Development, whether it is human development or country development, is linked to the proper growth and development of the technology in many ways. Technological advancement happens when there become new inventions in the science by highly skilled and professional scientists. We can say that technology, science and development are equally proportional to each other. Development in the science and technology is very necessary for the people of any nation to go hand in hand together by the people of other countries. Development of the science and technology depends on the analysis and proper understanding of facts. Development of technology depends on the way of application of various scientific knowledge in right direction.

    In order to enhance the economy and betterment of the people of any nation, up-to-date knowledge, technology, science, and engineering are the fundamental requisites. A nation can be backward and the chances of being developed country become minimal in the lack of science and technology.

  • As we all know that we live in the age of science and technology. The life of every one of us is highly depends on the scientific inventions and modern day technologies. Science and technology has changed the lives of people to a great extent. It has made life easy, simple and fast. In the new era, the science development has become a necessity to finish the era of bullock cart and bring the trend of motorized vehicles. Science and technologies have been implemented to the every aspect of modernization in every nation. Modern gadgets have been introduced to every walk of life and have solved almost all the problems. It was not possible to have all the benefits of it without implementing it in the sectors like medicines, education, infrastructure, electricity, aviation, information technology and other field.

    What improvement we are seeing in our life on daily basis is because of the science and technologies. For the proper growth and development of the country, it is very necessary to go science and technology hand in hand. Villages are getting developed to towns and towns to cities thus expanding the greater horizons of economy. Our country India is a fast developing country in the sense of science and technology.

  • Science and technology has become a debated topic in the society. On one hand, it is necessary for the modern life where other countries are continuously developing in the field of science and technology. It becomes very necessary for other countries too to grow in the same way to be strong and well developed like other countries for the future safety and security. It is science and technology which helps other weak countries to develop and be strong. We have to take support of science and technology forever to improve the way of life for the betterment of mankind. If we do not take the help of technologies such as computer, internet, electricity, etc we cannot be economically strong in the future and would be backward forever even we cannot survive in such a competitive and technological world.

    Advancement in the field of medical, agriculture, education, economy, sports, games, jobs, tourism, etc are the examples of science and technology. All such advancements show us that how both are equally beneficial for our life. We can see a clear difference in our life style while matching the ancient and modern way of life. High level of scientific and technological advancement in the field of medicine has made easy the treatment of various lethal diseases which was earlier not possible. It has helped a lot to the doctors to find effective ways to cure diseases through medicine or operations as well as research vaccines to cure diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Leukemia, etc.

  • The implication of science and technology to the people’s life is very old from the time of Indus Valley Civilization. It was almost first invention when came to know about fire and wheel. Both of the inventions are considered as the mother of all the technological innovations of the modern time. Through the invention of fire people knew about the power of energy first time. Since then, people’s curiosity was increased and they started trying their hard to research about various measures to make life style easy and simple.

    India is a most famous country all over the world from the ancient time however after its slavery by the British rule, it had lost its recognition and strength. After getting freedom in 1947, it again had started getting its lost recognition in the crowd. It is the science and technology which has helped India to get its real recognition all over the world. India has become a highly growing country through the new inventions in science and technological advancement. Science and technologies are playing great role in meeting the needs and requirements of the modern people.

    Some examples of the advancement in the technologies are establishment of railway system, metro system, railway reservation system, internet, super computers, mobiles, smart phones, online access of people in almost every area, etc. Government of India is creating more opportunity to the space organization and several academic institutions (Indian Association for the Advancement of Science) for the better technological growth and development in the country. Some of the renowned scientists of the India who have made possible the technological advancement in India (through their notable scientific researches in the various fields) are Sir J. C. Bose, S. N. Bose, C. V. Raman, Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, Srinivasa Ramanujan, father of India’s nuclear power, Dr. Har Govind Singh Khorana, Vikram Sarabhai, etc.

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    Science and technology plays vital role in the modern life and profoundly influenced the course of human civilization. Technological advancement in the modern life has provided us lots of remarkable insights all over the world. Scientific revolutions has taken its full speed from the 20th century and has become more advance in the 21st century. We have entered to the new century in new ways and with all the arrangements for well being of the people. Modern culture and civilization has become dependent over the science and technologies as they have become integral part of life according to the need and requirement of the people.

    India has become an important source of the creative and foundational scientific developments and approaches all across the world. All the great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in our country have improved the Indian economic status and have created many new ways to the new generations to grow in the technologically advanced environment. There are many new scientific researches and development have been possible in the field of Mathematics, Architecture, Chemistry, Astronomy, Medicine, Metallurgy, Natural Philosophy, physics, agriculture, health care, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics, nuclear energy, space technology, applications, defense research, biotechnology, information technology, electronics, oceanography and other areas.

    Introduction of scientific researches, ideas and techniques to the field of education has brought a huge level of positive change in the new generation and provided them variety of new and innovative opportunities to work in the field of their own interest. Modem science in India has been awakened by the continuous and hard efforts of the outstanding scientists. Scientists in India are great who have made possible the scientific advances of highest international calibre.

    Technological development in any filed enhances the economy of any nation. In order to improve the power of science and technology in India, Indian government has made Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in the year 1942 and Board of Scientific and Industrial Research in the year 1940. In order to emphasize the growth of science and technology in the country, Indian government has established a chain of national laboratories and research institutes in various regions.

    After the independence, our country has been involved in the promotion of spread of science for the national development. Variety of policies made by the government has emphasized the self-sufficiency and sustainable growth and development all through the country. Both science and technology have impacted the economic growth and social development in the country in extraordinary manner.

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NATURAL DISASTER

NATURAL DISASTER

  • The definition of natural disasters is any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not considered disasters. So a flood on an uninhabited island would not count as a disaster, but a flood in a populated area is called a natural disaster.
  • All natural disasters cause loss in some way. Depending on the severity, lives can be lost in any number of disasters. Falling buildings or trees, freezing to death, being washed away, or heat are just some of the deadly effects. Some disasters cause more loss of life than others, and population density affects the death count as well.
  • Then there is loss of property, which affects people’s living quarters, transportation, livelihood, and means to live. Fields saturated in salt water after tsunamis take years to grow crops again. Homes destroyed by floods, hurricanes, cyclones, landslides and avalanches, a volcanic eruption, or an earthquake are often beyond repair or take a lot of time to become livable again. Personal effects, memorabilia, vehicles, and documents also take a hit after many natural disasters.
  • The natural disasters that really affect people worldwide tend to become more intense as the years go on. Frequency of earthquakes, mega storms, and heat waves has gone up considerably in the last few decades. Heavy population in areas that get hit by floods, cyclones, and hurricanes has meant that more lives are lost. In some areas, the population has gotten somewhat prepared for the eventuality of disasters and shelters are built for hurricanes and tornadoes. However, loss of property is still a problem, and predicting many natural disasters isn’t easy.
  • However, despite the many natural disasters the world over, mankind has shown amazing resilience. When an area or country is badly affected by a natural disaster, the reaction is always one of solidarity and aid is quick to come. There are organizations set up with the primary goal of being prepared for natural disasters. These groups work on global and local scale rescue work. Aside from those who have chosen to make disaster relief their life-work, when disasters hit, it’s the individuals who step in who help to make a difference.
  • Many people talk about when a disaster has hit and their neighbors and countrymen have come to aid, often to their own loss. People will step in and donate items, time, and skills in order to help those affected by a natural disaster. Celebrities will often do what they can to raise money through concerts, phone marathons, and visiting affected areas with aid. People have also shown that they can rebuild, lives can be remade or start over. Trauma is a big after effect of natural disasters and getting counseling has been the focus of aid—to heal emotionally as well as physically.
  • It’s clear that natural disasters are a part of life as we know it. However, science is making it more possible to predict, aid is faster at coming, and people are learning how to rebuild in safer areas.
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GRAVITY

GRAVITY

  • Gravity is the force by which a planet or other body draws objects toward its center. The force of gravity keeps all of the planets in orbit around the sun.
  • Why do you land on the ground when you jump up instead of floating off into space? Why do things fall down when you throw them or drop them? The answer is gravity: an invisible force that pulls objects toward each other. Earth’s gravity is what keeps you on the ground and what makes things fall.
  • Anything that has mass also has gravity. Objects with more mass have more gravity. Gravity also gets weaker with distance. So, the closer objects are to each other, the stronger their gravitational pull is.
  • Earth’s gravity comes from all its mass. All its mass makes a combined gravitational pull on all the mass in your body. That’s what gives you weight. And if you were on a planet with less mass than Earth, you would weigh less than you do here.
  • You exert the same gravitational force on Earth that it does on you. But because Earth is so much more massive than you, your force doesn’t really have an effect our planet.
  • Gravity is what holds the planets in orbit around the sun and what keeps the moon in orbit around Earth. The gravitational pull of the moon pulls the seas towards it, causing the ocean tides. Gravity creates stars and planets by pulling together the material from which they are made.

    Gravity not only pulls on mass but also on light. Albert Einstein discovered this principle. If you shine a flashlight upwards, the light will grow imperceptibly redder as gravity pulls it. You can’t see the change with your eyes, but scientists can measure it.

    Black holes pack so much mass into such a small volume that their gravity is strong enough to keep anything, even light, from escaping.

  • Gravity is very important to us. We could not live on Earth without it. The sun’s gravity keeps Earth in orbit around it, keeping us at a comfortable distance to enjoy the sun’s light and warmth. It holds down our atmosphere and the air we need to breath. Gravity is what holds our world together.

    However, gravity isn’t the same everywhere on Earth. Gravity is slightly stronger over places with more mass underground than over places with less mass. NASA uses two spacecraft to measure these variations in Earth’s gravity. These spacecraft are part of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission.

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DC MOTOR

DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

  • DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor.
  • DC motors were the first type widely used, since they could be powered from existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor’s speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power electronics has made replacement of DC motors ac motors possible in many applications.
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USE OF TECHNOLOGY

USE OF TECHNOLOGY

  • There are many uses of technology ,we are nothing without technology.
  • Technology makes our life much easier .
  • The uses of technology are :
  • BUSINESS: today business can save mony using technology to perform certain tasks. When you compare the money you spent on hiring an individual to perform a certain task and guarantee delivery on time, it is totally expensive. When it comes to technology a small business can scale out and deliver more with less human resource.
  • COMMUNICATION: Unlike in the past when communication was limited to letter writing and waiting for those postal services to deliver your message. Today technology has made the field of communications so easy.  Now you can draft a business message and email it or fax in a second without any delays, the recipient will get the message an they will repli you ,instantly.
  • HUMAN RELATIONSHIP: As the world develops, people are getting more carried away with their work and carries. Today a lot is demanded so every one is busy to have time to find a relationship. So technology has also filled this part. With technology you can connect and meet new people while at work using social network technology.  You can also use technology to find a new date without living your work.  Now days people use mobile phone apps to meet and connect with new and old friends. Social networks like facebook  , tagged.com have played a big role in connecting both old and new relationships.
  • EDUCATION: Today, technology has made a very big change in the education world. With the invention of technological gadgets and mobile apps which helps students learn easily.  Now days you can access a full library via a mobile app on any smart phone or ipad. Before inventing this technology, students had to go to physical libraries to get the information they need.
  • PURCHASING:Technology has also made the buying and selling of good so flexible. With the introduction e-payment systems like Paypal.com  and Square Wallet App , users can easily purchase any thing online without living the comfort of their homes.For you to use paypal , you will have to sign up with the site for free, then connect your debit card details so that money is transferred from your physical bank account to your electronic PayPal account. So when you go to a store like Amazon.com , you can use your PayPal electronic credit to buy anything on AMAZON.COM . This has made purchasing of items so easy.
  • AGRICULTURE: With the invention of Mobile App for farmers, they can use an App like ”FamGraze” to work faster and be more accurate while in the field and off the field. For example, ”FamGraze” app will help a farmer manage their grass more effectively by suggesting the cheapest feed for their livestock. This app will calculate the amount of grass your animals have in the field. You will need no paper or any spreadsheets to do all this. Saving you more time while in the field.
  • TRANSPOTATION: Transportation is one of the basic areas of technological activity. Both businesses and individuals have benefited from the new technologies in the travel industry. Time is money , so we must have first and efficient means of transport.   Try to imagine life without well developed transportation systems.  I think of transportation in the same light as food, clothing and shelter. It has become a basic need , because we use advanced transport means like cars , trains , airplanes to go to work , to transport goods , to go shopping, to visit friends and families and so much more.   However, the transportation technology has been changing since 1800 to the recent years.
  • BANKING:Now electronic banking moving money has become so simple. The invention of VISA ELECTRON  has made  it simple to move with more money with out having any fears of getting robbed on the way. You can buy any thing with a Visa Electron card, so in this case you don’t have to move with cash.Banks use the Visa neutral network software to spot fraud and determine which of their customers might default or go bankrupt. This neutral network is very good at spotting patterns, so if your profile looks like that of people who have defaulted, the bank will take action and save you from getting robbed.
  • CONTROL AND HARNESS NATURAL FORCES: Natural forces affect and disrupt human life and daily economic activates.  For example; Floods wash away farmland and homes, they carry out fertile top soil and disrupt the growth of crops. Also fires burn buildings, crops and forests which affect human life. However, technology has enabled humans build large dams which can harbor excess water and use that water to generate power.  Also fire is tamed to heat our homes and process industrial materials. Wind is being used to generate electricity.  We have converted solar energy to power which is being used in homes and businesses.  All this is a result of using technology to control natural forces.
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MOON

MOON

  • The MOON is an astronomical body  that orbits planet earth, being Earth’s only permanent sattalite. It is the fifth largest natural satellite in the salar system, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits. Following jupiter’s satellite lo, the Moon is the second-dentest satellite among those whose densities are known.
  • The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after earth. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia.
  • The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. As seen from the Earth, it is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth’s sky, after the Sun. Its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tidesbody tides, and the slight lengthening of the day.
  • The Moon’s average orbital distance at the present time is 384,402 km (238,856 mi),or 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth, with its apparent size in the sky almost the same as that of the Sun (due to it being 400x farther and larger), resulting in the Moon covering the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipse. This matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future, because the Moon’s distance from Earth is slowly increasing.
  • The Soviet Union‘s Luna program was the first to reach the Moon with unmanned spacecraft in 1959; the United States’ NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, beginning with the first manned lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned lunar landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon’s origin, internal structure, and later history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.Within human culture, both the Moon’s natural prominence in the earthly sky, and its regular cycle of phases as seen from the Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in languagelunar based calendar systemsart, and mythology.
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EARTH

EARTH

  • Earth is the third planet from the sun and the only object in the universe known to harbor life.
  • According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, earth formed over 4 billion years ago Earth’s gravity  interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth’s only natural satellite.
  • Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year.
  • During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.
  • Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet’s surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earth’s orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the solar system and the largest of the four terrestrial planets.
  • Earths’s lithosphere  is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth’s surface is covered with water, mostly by oceans.The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
  • The majority of Earth’s polar region are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheets and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth’s interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth’s magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.
  • Within the first billion years of Earth’s history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth’s atmosphere and  surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisims. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth’s distance from the Sun, physical properties, and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive.In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that ever lived on Earth are extinct, Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely; most species have not been described. Over 7.6 billions humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and culture; politically, the world has about 200 sovereing states.
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