Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and arrangement. Math is all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture (ancient and modern), art, money, engineering, and even sports.

Since the beginning of recorded history, mathematic discovery has been at the forefront of every civilized society, and in use in even the most primitive of cultures. The needs of math arose based on the wants of society. The more complex a society, the more complex the mathematical needs. Primitive tribes needed little more than the ability to count, but also relied on math to calculate the position of the sun and the physics of hunting.

Several civilizations — in China, India, Egypt, Central America and Mesopotamia — contributed to mathematics as we know it today. The Sumerians were the first people to develop a counting system. Mathematicians developed arithmetic, which includes basic operations, multiplication, fractions and square roots. The Sumerians’ system passed through the Akkadian Empire to the Babylonians around 300 B.C. Six hundred years later, in America, the Mayans developed elaborate calendar systems and were skilled astronomers. About this time, the concept of zero was developed.

As civilizations developed, mathematicians began to work with geometry, which computes areas and volumes to make angular measurements and has many practical applications. Geometry is used in everything from home construction to fashion and interior design.

Geometry went hand in hand with algebra, invented in the ninth century by a Persian mathematician, Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi. He also developed quick methods for multiplying and diving numbers, which are known as algorithms — a corruption of his name.

Algebra offered civilizations a way to divide inheritances and allocate resources. The study of algebra meant mathematicians were solving linear equations and systems, as well as quadratics, and delving into positive and negative solutions. Mathematicians in ancient times also began to look at number theory. With origins in the construction of shape, number theory looks at figurate numbers, the characterization of numbers, and theorems.

Math and the Greeks

The study of math within early civilizations was the building blocks for the math of the Greeks, who developed the model of abstract mathematics through geometry. Greece, with its incredible architecture and complex system of government, was the model of mathematic achievement until modern times. Greek mathematicians were divided into several schools:

  • The Ionian School, founded by Thales, who is often credited for having given the first deductive proofs and developing five basic theorems in plane geometry.
  • The Pythagorean School, founded by Pythagoras, who studied proportion, plane and solid geometry, and number theory.
  • The Eleatic School, which included Zeno of Elea, famous for his four paradoxes.
  • The Sophist School, which is credited for offering higher education in the advanced Greek cities. Sophists provided instruction on public debate using abstract reasoning.
  • The Platonic School, founded by Plato, who encouraged research in mathematics in a setting much like a modern university.
  • The School of Eudoxus, founded by Eudoxus, who developed the theory of proportion and magnitude and produced many theorems in plane geometry
  • The School of Aristotle, also known as the Lyceum, was founded by Aristotle and followed the Platonic school.

In addition to the Greek mathematicians listed above, a number of Greeks made an indelible mark on the history of mathematics. Archimedes, Apollonius, Diophantus, Pappus, and Euclid all came from this era. To better understand the sequence and how these mathematicians influenced each other, visit this timeline.

During this time, mathematicians began working with trigonometry. Computational in nature, trigonometry requires the measurement of angles and the computation of trigonometric functions, which include sine, cosine, tangent, and their reciprocals. Trigonometry relies on the synthetic geometry developed by Greek mathematicians like Euclid. For example, Ptolemy’s theorem gives rules for the chords of the sum and difference of angles, which correspond to the sum and difference formulas for sines and cosines. In past cultures, trigonometry was applied to astronomy and the computation of angles in the celestial sphere.

After the fall of Rome, the development of mathematics was taken on by the Arabs, then the Europeans. Fibonacci was one of the first European mathematicians, and was famous for his theories on arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. The Renaissance led to advances that included decimal fractions, logarithms, and projective geometry. Number theory was greatly expanded upon, and theories like probability and analytic geometry ushered in a new age of mathematics, with calculus at the forefront.

Development of calculus

In the 17th century, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz independently developed the foundations for calculus. Calculus development went through three periods: anticipation, development and rigorization. In the anticipation stage, mathematicians were attempting to use techniques that involved infinite processes to find areas under curves or maximize certain qualities. In the development stage, Newton and Leibniz brought these techniques together through the derivative and integral. Though their methods were not always logically sound, mathematicians in the 18th century took on the rigorization stage, and were able to justify them and create the final stage of calculus. Today, we define the derivative and integral in terms of limits.

In contrast to calculus, which is a type of continuous mathematics, other mathematicians have taken a more theoretical approach. Discrete mathematics is the branch of math that deals with objects that can assume only distinct, separated value. Discrete objects can be characterized by integers, whereas continuous objects require real numbers. Discrete mathematics is the mathematical language of computer science, as it includes the study of algorithms. Fields of discrete mathematics include combinatorics, graph theory, and the theory of computation.

People often wonder what relevance mathematicians serve today. In a modern world, math such as applied mathematics is not only relevant, it’s crucial. Applied mathematics is the branches of mathematics that are involved in the study of the physical, biological, or sociological world. The idea of applied math is to create a group of methods that solve problems in science. Modern areas of applied math include mathematical physics, mathematical biology, control theory, aerospace engineering, and math finance. Not only does applied math solve problems, but it also discovers new problems or develops new engineering disciplines. Applied mathematicians require expertise in many areas of math and science, physical intuition, common sense, and collaboration. The common approach in applied math is to build a mathematical model of a phenomenon, solve the model, and develop recommendations for performance improvement.

While not necessarily an opposite to applied mathematics, pure mathematics is driven by abstract problems, rather than real world problems. Much of what’s pursued by pure mathematicians can have their roots in concrete physical problems, but a deeper understanding of these phenomena brings about problems and technicalities. These abstract problems and technicalities are what pure mathematics attempts to solve, and these attempts have led to major discoveries for mankind, including the Universal Turing Machine, theorized by Alan Turing in 1937. The Universal Turing Machine, which began as an abstract idea, later laid the groundwork for the development of the modern computer. Pure mathematics is abstract and based in theory, and is thus not constrained by the limitations of the physical world.

According to one pure mathematician, pure mathematicians prove theorems, and applied mathematicians construct theories. Pure and applied are not mutually exclusive, but they are rooted in different areas of math and problem solving. Though the complex math involved in pure and applied mathematics is beyond the understanding of most average Americans, the solutions developed from the processes have affected and improved the lives of all.




Every person nurtures an innate desire of looking good and feel ‘accepted’ in the sociol-economic circle. The word fashion instantaneously brings to mind a flash of colour with a dash of glamour.

Women are taking to fashion in a big way, and are experimenting with different looks, styles, and textures.

Fashion plays an increasingly important role in an indivi­dual’s life because it is considered as a means of self-expression. The garments and accessories that man or women wear, help them to identify with a group of others-whether it is a lifestyle, profession, a religion, or an attitude. Thus, the term ‘fashion’ has become synonymous with the overall growth of the country as well.

Several factors contribute to the evolution of fashion as a whole. It is a widely accepted fact that the rich and the famous, and the political figures and royalty have always moved the seasonal trends of fashion. The advertising media also contributes equally to update us about the daily style checks.

Fashion in India, a land rich in culture and tradition, has evolved through the centuries. This country, rich in culture represents a kaleidoscope of changing trends and traditions. Here, clothes perform different functions depending on the occasion. Be it festivals, parties, profession, or just a matter of reflecting attitude … fashion is simply ‘in’.

Right from women who sport a dash of vermilion in the parting of their hair, to professionals on the go who wield the ladle and the laptop with equal ease, fashion forms an integral 92 Top School Essays

part of their lives. Today, fashion does not necessarily mean glamour, or the urge to follow the current trends. It is more a way of life, a reflection of inner beauty, where the intellect shines through, complete with comfort quotient.

Fashion not only highlights the social history and the needs of person but also the overall cultural aesthetic of the various periods. The evolution of fashion dates back to several hundred years and as our attitude and culture change, fashion comes along with it.

In India, the fashion scenario was different in different political periods. During the British rule in India, the fashion trend within high society was strongly influenced by the British fashion style and western clothes became a status symbol in India.

Again during 1930s, emergence of different ideologies like communism, socialism and fascism imparted a more feminine and conservative touch to the women’s fashion.

However, the period also witnessed the predominance of body hugging dresses with dark shades. The foundation of the Indian cinema also proved to be the strongest influence on revolutionising the fashion scene in those days.

1940s was a decade marked by the second World War and the ensuing independence of India. Hence, the period portrayed relatively simple yet functional women’s clothing.

During 1950s, the advent of art colleges and schools led to popularity of narrow waist and balloon skirts with bouncing patterns. Also, the adoption of khadi by Mahatma Gandhi made khadi garments a rage among women.

In the 1960s, the sweeping changes in fashion and lifestyle resulted in highly versatile fashion trends. In 1970s, the traditional materials were exported in bulk to other nations.

Thus, excess of export materials were sold within the country itself, which resulted in popularity of international fashion in India.

During 1980s and 90s, the advent of television and other advertising means gave a new edge to the Indian fashion scene. Influenced by ideas of several foreign designers, new design and pattern were introduced into garments.

During these periods, power dressing and corporate look were the style statement. The revival of ethnicity was also witnessed in these decades.

Fashion trends keep changing and most fashion divas and models are the one to make them. The youth is a major follower of fashion trends. Fashion trends also get influenced from Bollywood as well as Hollywood. Metros like Mumbai and Delhi witness the quick changes in fashion especially in college going crowds.

India has a rich and varied textile heritage, where each region of India has its own unique native costume and traditional attire. While traditional clothes are still worn in most of rural India, urban India is changing rapidly, with international fashion trends reflected by the young and glamorous, in the cosmopolitan metros of India.

Fashion in India is a vibrant scene, a nascent industry and a colourful and glamorous world where designers and models start new trends every day.

While previously a master weaver was recognised for his skill, today a fashion designer is celebrated for his or her creativity. Young urban Indians can choose from the best of East and West as Indian fashion designers are inspired by both Indian and western styles. This fusion of fashion can be seen

Fashion in India is also beginning to make its mark on the international scene, as accessories such as bindis (red dots worn on the forehead), mehendi (designs made by applying henna to the palms of the hands and other parts of the body) and bangles, have gained international popularity, after being worn by fashion icons, like the pop singers Madonna and Gwen Stefani.

In India, fashion has become a growing industry with international events such as the India Fashion Week and annual shows by fashion designers in the major cities of India.

The victories of a number of Indian beauty queens in International events such as the Miss World and Miss Universe contests have also made Indian models recognised worldwide.

Fashion designers such as Ritu Kumar, Ritu Beri, Rohit Bal, Rina Dhaka, Muzaffar Ah, Satya Paul, Abraham and Thakore, Tarun Tahiliani, JJ Valaya and Manish Malhotra are some of the well- known fashion designers in India.

In India, fashion covers a whole range of clothing from ornate clothes designed for wedding ceremonies to pret lines, sports wear and casual wear.

Traditional Indian techniques of embroidery such as chikhan, crewel and zardosi, and traditional weaves and fabrics have been used by Indian designers to create Indo-western clothing in a fusion of the best of East and West.

Traditional costumes in India vary widely depending on the climate and natural fibres grown in a region. In the cold northern state of Jammu and Kashmir, people wear a thick loose shirt called a phiran to keep them warm.

In the tropical warmth of south India, men wear a sarong like garment called the mundu, while women drape 5 metres of cloth around their bodies in the graceful folds of the saree. Sarees are woven in silk, cotton and artificial fibres. Kanjivaram, Mysore, Paithani, Pochampalli, Jamdani, Balucheri, Benarasi, Sambalpuri,

Bandhini are some varieties of beautiful sarees from different regions of India. In the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat men wrap and twist a length of cloth in the form of a dhoti around their lower limbs and a shirt-like kurta above.

Colourful turbans complete the picture. In the northeastern regions the tribal communities such as Khasis, Nagas, Mizos, Manipuris and Arunachalis wear colourful woven sarong-like clothing and woven shawls that represent the identity of each tribal group.

In urban India the salwar kameez and the churidar kameez, are commonly work by women and the saree is worn on formal occasions. Men wear kurtas and pajamas, or a sherwani for formal wear. Men commonly wear western wear such as shirts and trousers across India.

The young and the young at heart wear Jeans, T-shirts, capris, Bermudas and various kinds of casual clothing, which are the trendsetters of fashion in India.

Comparing the past and the present, fashion for people in India has changed over the decades. Not only India, but also the whole world has witnessed changes in fashion statements for both men and women.

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The Great Pacific garbage patch, also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the central North Pacific Ocean discovered between 1985 and 1988. It is located roughly between 135°W to 155°W and 35°N to 42°N.[1] The collection of plastic, floating trash halfway between Hawaii and California[2] extends over an indeterminate area of widely varying range depending on the degree of plastic concentration used to define the affected area.

The patch is characterized by exceptionally high relative pelagic concentrations of plastic, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre.[3] Despite the common public image of islands of floating rubbish, its low density (4 particles per cubic meter) prevents detection by satellite imagery, or even by casual boaters or divers in the area. It consists primarily of an increase in suspended, often microscopic, particles in the upper water column.

The Great Pacific garbage patch was described in a 1988 paper published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States. The description was based on results obtained by several Alaska-based researchers in 1988 that measured neustonic plastic in the North Pacific Ocean.[4] Researchers found relatively high concentrations of marine debris accumulating in regions governed by ocean currents. Extrapolating from findings in the Sea of Japan, the researchers hypothesized that similar conditions would occur in other parts of the Pacific where prevailing currents were favorable to the creation of relatively stable waters. They specifically indicated the North Pacific Gyre.[5]

Charles J. Moore, returning home through the North Pacific Gyre after competing in the Transpacific Yacht Race in 1997, claimed to have come upon an enormous stretch of floating debris. Moore alerted the oceanographer Curtis Ebbesmeyer, who subsequently dubbed the region the “Eastern Garbage Patch” (EGP).[6] The area is frequently featured in media reports as an exceptional example of marine pollution.[7]

The Pacific garbage patch is not easily seen from the sky, because the plastic is dispersed over a large area. Researchers from The Ocean Cleanup have found the patch to cover an area of 1.6 million square kilometers. The plastic concentration is estimated to be up to 100 kilograms per square kilometer in the center of the patch, going down to 10 kilograms per square kilometer in the outer parts of the patch. There is an estimate of 80,000 metric tons of plastic in the patch, totalling 1.8 trillion pieces. When accounting for the total mass, 92% of the debris found in the patch consists of objects larger than 0.5 centimeters. [8]

A similar patch of floating plastic debris is found in the Atlantic Ocean, called the North Atlantic garbage patch.

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Sonnet – a short rhyming poem with 14 lines.  The original sonnet form was invented in the 13/14th century by Dante and an Italian philosopher named Francisco Petrarch. The form remained largely unknown until it was found and developed by writers such as Shakespeare. Sonnets use iambic meter in each line and use line-ending rhymes.

Limerick – a five-line witty poem with a distinctive rhythm. The first, second and fifth lines, the longer lines, rhyme. The third and fourth shorter lines rhyme. (A-A-B-B-A).

Haiku – This ancient form of poem writing is renowned for its small size as well as the precise punctuation and syllables needed on its three lines. It is of ancient Asian origin. Haiku’s are composed of 3 lines, each a phrase. The first line typically has 5 syllables, second line has 7 and the 3rd and last line repeats another 5. In addition there is a seasonal reference included.

Narrative – A narrative poem tells the story of an event in the form of a poem. There is a strong sense of narration, characters, and plot.

Epic – a lengthy narrative poem in grand language celebrating the adventures and accomplishments of a legendary or conventional hero.

Couplet – two lines of verse which rhyme and form a unit alone or as part of a poem.

Free Verse – A Free Verse Poem does not follow any rules. Their creation is completely in the hands of the author. Rhyming, syllable count, punctuation, number of lines, number of stanzas, and line formation can be done however the author wants in order to convey the idea. There is no right or wrong way to create a Free Verse poem.



The word “science” probably brings to mind many different pictures: a textbook, white lab coats and microscopes, an astronomer peering through a telescope, a naturalist in the rain forest, Einstein’s equations scribbled on a chalkboard, the launch of the space shuttle, bubbling beakers …. All of those images reflect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture because science has so many facts.

  • Science is both a body of knowledge and a process. In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that’s only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understandings of the natural world.
  • Science is exciting. Science is a way of discovering what’s in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past, and how they are likely to work in the future. Scientists are motivated by the thrill of seeing or figuring out something that no one has before.
  • Science is useful. The knowledge generated by science is powerful and reliable. It can be used to develop new technologies, treat diseases, and deal with many other sorts of problems.
  • Science is ongoing. Science is continually refining and expanding our knowledge of the universe, and as it does, it leads to new questions for future investigation. Science will never be “finished.”
  • Science is a global human endeavor. People all over the world participate in the process of science. And you can too!





1. A Loyal Best Friend

Sometimes a loyal best friend is the only thing you need to stay sane. Everyone needs a non-judgmental friend who will support them no matter what. This is the kind of friend who lets you be a hot mess and knows all of your deepest and darkest secrets, but still loves you all the same.

2. A Fearless Adventurer

We live in a big world where there are so many places to see, people to meet, and experiences to be had, yet so many of us are stuck in our own routines and forget to, well, live. We all need an adventurous friend who will pull us out of our shells and introduce us to new ideas, cultures, philosophies, and activities.

3. A Brutally Honest Confidant

There’s certain situations in life where we need to hear the harsh truth. That’s what the brutally honest confidant is for. If you’re in a rocky relationship and everyone’s telling you that it’s perfectly normal that you’re back with that special someone for the 8th time in the last 2 years, the brutally honest confidant is there to yank your rose-colored glasses off and tell you, “Enough. Stop with all that break-up-and-get-back-together drama. You deserve better.” Friends are supposed to be honest with each other. If you find someone who is brutally honest with you (in a constructive way), then hold on to this person! People like that are hard to come by these days.

4. A Wise Mentor

Jesse Jackson once said, “Never look down on someone unless you’re helping them up.” If you have someone smart, inspiring, and admirable in your life who practices this philosophy, you’re extremely lucky. We all need a friend who inspires us to be better people without making us feel inadequate. Plus, being around such a person will challenge us to better ourselves every day.

The wise mentor in your life doesn’t have to be someone who shares the same occupation or hobbies with you. It’s simply someone who’s a few steps ahead of you in life and has enough wisdom and patience to guide you in the right direction. It can be anyone — a colleague, a friend who’s beyond their years, or an older neighbor — as long as you look up to this person and want to be more like them.

5. A Friend From a Different Culture

The last thing you want to be described as is someone who’s stuck in their own ways. If everyone had a friend from a different culture, the world would be a much better place. Being in a cross-cultural friendship allows you to explore customs, values, and traditions outside of your own culture. Sometimes you might even adopt new ways to do things.

Be careful; don’t befriend someone just because they’re from a different culture. No one likes to be a token friend. Instead, keep your mind open, and if you come across someone you click with who just so happens to be from a different culture, make the effort to learn about their customs, values, and traditions while getting to know the person on a personal level.

6. A Polar Opposite

We humans are hard-wired to get together in groups and attack outsiders — the human pack mentality, if you will. If you only develop friendships with others who follow the same beliefs, customs, and values as you do, chances are you’re somewhat detached from the rest of the world, and you’re more likely to perpetuate stereotypes on anyone who holds a different world view from you.

Instead of constantly surrounding yourself with like-minded people, try to break out of your comfort zone and befriend people who hold opposing views. They will help open your eyes to different world views and you’ll learn to accept people who don’t see the world exactly the way you see it.

7. A Friendly Neighbor

These days, a lot of people don’t know their own neighbors. It’s a shame, because some neighbors can be the nicest and most helpful people ever. If you’re on a vacation, and you suddenly realize that you forgot to lock the front door, you can call up your trusty ol’ neighbor and ask them to head over to your house and lock it for you. Nice dependable neighbors who have each other’s backs are a dying breed, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t introduce yourself to the new neighbors across the street!

8. A Work Pal

Did you know that with a full-time job, you spend at least 50% of your waking hours at work? Not only that, but you spend some more time commuting to work, thinking about work, working overtime, and furthering your career on your personal time. Depressing, isn’t it?

Statistics show that the more isolated you are at work, the more depressed you get. That’s why it makes sense to get a work pal to chat with at the water cooler and to help you get through the week. You spend 50% of your waking hours at work, and so does your work pal. You’ll find it much easier to shoot the breeze and complain about work with someone who can relate to you than eating lunch alone every day.

Your work pal doesn’t have to be your best friend outside of work. They just need to be someone you click with on some level, and if you two hit it off exceptionally well, you can always start hanging out with them outside of the office.

With a loyal best friend, a fearless adventurer, a brutally honest confidant, a wise mentor, a friend from a different culture, a polar opposite, a friendly neighbor, and a work pal in your life, you’re bound to live a long and happy life!














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Identification. Although Oman has existed as a distinct nation for several thousand years, the modern state—the Sultanate of Oman—is a creation of the last two centuries. The traditional territorial concept of Oman was altered in this period by the independence of the northwestern part of Oman as the United Arab Emirates and the absorption into the sultanate of the southern region of Dhofar. Although the names of both Oman and Dhofar are clearly of great antiquity, their original meanings and sources are uncertain. While most northern Omanis share a common Arab, Muslim, and tribal culture, the people of Dhofar remain culturally distinct and often feel culturally closer to neighboring regions in Yemen to the west.

Location and Geography. The Omani culture owes much to the geography of the country. The cultural heartland lies in the interior, in the valleys of the mountainous backbone which parallels the coastal plains and the interior plains. Seas to the north and east and deserts to west and south have served to isolate the country from the outside world. At the same time, Oman’s presence on the Indian Ocean has fostered a long maritime tradition which has enriched the culture through the settlement of many Baluchis (the Indo-Iranian people of Baluchistan) along the northern coast and the interaction with East African cultures. Traditionally, Oman’s capital was located in the interior but Muscat (Masqat), now the principal seaport, has served as the capital since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Northern Oman is separated from southern Dhofar by several hundred miles of desert, which results in the cultural distinctiveness of the Dhofaris.

Demography. Oman’s only census (1993) revealed a total population of 2 million, of which 1.5 million were Omanis. There were 175,000 residents of Dhofar. Census figures were not broken down into ethnic or linguistic categories, although it can be estimated that several hundred thousand Omanis were of Baluchi origin. About half the Omani population belongs to the Ibadi sect of Islam and a similar number belong to mainstream Sunni Islam. There are several small communities of Shia Muslims. Population growth is estimated at nearly 4 percent per year.

Linguistic Affiliation. Arabic is the principal language spoken by Omanis, who have spoken it since the immigration of Arab tribes nearly two millennia ago. The Omani dialect generally is close to modern standard Arabic, although coastal dialects employ a number of loanwords from Baluchi, Persian, Urdu and Gujarati (two Indo- languages), and even Portuguese. The mountain peoples of Dhofar, as well as several small nomadic groups in the desert between Dhofar and northern Oman, speak a variety of unique South Arabian languages that are not mutually intelligible with modern Arabic. Minority groups speak Arabic as well as their own languages at home, and English is widely spoken as a second language.

Symbolism. The national symbol employs a pair of crossed khanjars, the traditional daggers that all Omani men wore until recently (and still wear on formal occasions). This symbol is integrated into the national flag and appears in nearly all government logos.

Emergence of the Nation. Oman has a very long history and was known as Magan to ancient Persian and Mesopotamian civilizations and was an important producer of copper and ornamental stone. The Arab tribes in Oman adopted Islam during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad (c.570–632) and forced the Persian colonizers to leave. Since then, Oman has generally remained an independent Arab and Ibadi/Sunni Muslim entity.

National Identity. The Omani national identity has evolved from its predominant Arab language and culture, its tribal organization, and Islam. Oman withstood attempts by classical Islamic empires to subdue the country, and the Portuguese invasion of the sixteenth century was confined to coastal ports and was terminated by national Omani resistance in the mid-seventeenth century.

Ethnic Relations. Although the dominant cultural group in Oman is Arab and Ibadi/Sunni Muslim, the culture has been very tolerant of other groups. Ethnic, sectarian, or linguistic conflict rarely occurs in Oman although tribal disputes are not unknown.

The contemporary urban character of Omani culture has strong ties to Indian Mogul architectural style. This is manifested in the seafront whitewashed two- and occasionally three-story residential buildings that line the road along the harbor of Matrah (Muscat’s sister city). It is also seen in the style of some mosques and minarets with their slim and ornate shapes, as well as in public buildings such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs building in Qurm. Other contemporary constructions are more eclectic in style.

Earlier architectural styles found in the towns and interior cities of Oman, such as Nizwa, Ibri, Ibra, and Bahla, reflected a pared down and simpler cultural expression and use of space that was consistent with Ibadism, a relatively austere form of Islam.

Private residences reflect the culture’s concern for gendered space. Most Omani homes have formal rooms for men and their visitors, while women generally socialize in each other’s private quarters. When people meet to mark various rites of passage, such as births, marriages, and deaths, the celebrations are marked by clear gendered space. It is women who visit other women on the occasion of a birth in a family. Marriage rituals entail elaborate celebrations for women only, for men only, and, when space is open, with segregated sitting areas. Deaths are similarly marked by gendered use of space, with only men attending the actual burial of a body.

Food in Daily Life. Omani cuisine revolves around rice. The morning meal is not significant, often consisting of bread or leftovers from the day before, and tea. The main meal of the day is in early to mid-afternoon. It is generally a large dish of rice with a thin sauce often based on tomato or tomato paste and meat or fish. Pork does not exist in the Omani diet as it is prohibited by Islam. The evening meal is generally very light, sometimes consisting only of fruit or bread and tea. The influence of Indian cooking is very strong. A variety of Indian restaurants are found throughout the country. In the capital area, there are a number of Western fast-food establishments, as well as a variety of French, Italian, Japanese, and Chinese restaurants.

Food Customs and Ceremonial Occasions. Dates, fresh or dried, are important to the diet and to the ritual of hospitality. Equally important is helwa, a sweet confection based on clarified butter, honey, and spices. Both are served to guests with strong, bitter, and often cardamom-scented coffee. During Ramadan, the Islamic month of fasting, Omanis refrain from eating or drinking between sunrise and sunset. They break their fast with coffee and dates followed shortly thereafter by a ritual meal, often shared with family and close friends, of elaborate foods heavy in oils and spices.

Basic Economy. A large percentage of Omanis live in rural areas and many others own land and property in the countryside even though they live and work in the towns. Many of those in the countryside are self-sufficient farmers and fishermen. Livestock production is the basis of agricultural activity in the center and south of Oman, with fishing along Oman’s long coastline coming a close second. Nearly one-third of Omani’s nonoil exports come from agriculture and fisheries. Oman imports more than half the vegetables and dairy products it needs and just under half the beef, eggs, and mutton.

Land Tenure and Property. All land is officially owned by the state. Some land has been recognized as privately held and in the late twentieth century the government pursued a policy of providing all Omanis with private parcels of land for residences and farms. Shared property rights or land use rights are held by custom and are generally tribal in origin. Hence much of the interior semiarid and arid lands are used by nomadic pastoral tribes. Although their territory is no longer recognized as theirs by the state, it remains uncontested by local inhabitants and other tribes.

Commercial Activities. Agriculture and fishing are the traditional economic activities in Oman. Dates and limes, make up most of the country’s exports. Coconut palms, wheat, and bananas are also grown. Cattle are raised in Dhofar. Fish and shellfish exports create a steady income of roughly $40 million (U.S.).

Major Industries. Oman is an oil-producing nation and revenues from petroleum products have been the backbone of Oman’s dramatic development over the last three decades of the twentieth century. But oil resources are not extensive and natural gas reserves are becoming more prominent, with liquified natural gas exports expected to provide significant new income in the early twenty-first century.






Samsung (Hangul삼성; Hanja三星; Korean pronunciation: [samsʌŋ]) is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol (business conglomerate).

Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s; these areas would drive its subsequent growth. Following Lee’s death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has increasingly globalised its activities and electronics; in particular, its mobile phones and semiconductors have become its most important source of income. As of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value.

Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics (the world’s largest information technology company, consumer electronics maker and chipmaker measured by 2017 revenues), Samsung Heavy Industries (the world’s 2nd largest shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues), and Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T (respectively the world’s 13th and 36th largest construction companies). Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance (the world’s 14th largest life insurance company), Samsung Everland (operator of Everland Resort, the oldest theme park in South Korea) and Cheil Worldwide (the world’s 15th largest advertising agency measured by 2012 revenues).

Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea’s economic development, politics, media and culture and has been a major driving force behind the “Miracle on the Han River“. Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea’s total exports. Samsung’s revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea’s $1,082 billion GDP.