Block Diagrams

block diagram is a diagram of a system in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks. They are heavily used in engineering in hardware design, electronic design, software design, and process flow diagrams.Image result for block diagram


Block diagrams are typically used for higher level, less detailed descriptions that are intended to clarify overall concepts without concern for the details of implementation. Contrast this with the schematic diagrams and layout diagrams used in electrical engineering, which show the implementation details of electrical components and physical construction.

Examples of Block Diagrams

In electrical engineering, a design will often begin as a very high level block diagram, becoming more and more detailed block diagrams as the design progresses, finally ending in block diagrams detailed enough that each individual block can be easily implemented .

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In biology there is an increasing use of engineering principles, techniques of analysis and methods of diagramming. There is some similarity between the block diagram and what is called Systems Biology Graphical Notation.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks.

A graphical expression of Euclid’s algorithm to find the greatest common divisor for 1599 and 650.

 1599 = 650×2 + 299
 650 = 299×2 + 52
 299 = 52×5 + 39
 52 = 39×1 + 13
 39 = 13×3 + 0


An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing “output” and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.

What is  Euclid ‘s Algorithm ?

Euclid ‘s algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor (GCD) to two numbers appears as Proposition II in Book VII (“Elementary Number Theory”) of his Elements. Euclid poses the problem thus: “Given two numbers not prime to one another, to find their greatest common measure”. He defines “A number [to be] a multitude composed of units”: a counting number, a positive integer not including zero. To “measure” is to place a shorter measuring length s successively (q times) along longer length l until the remaining portion r is less than the shorter length s.

How to solve Euclid ‘s Algorithm ?


Basic Circuit and Switching

What is a Circuit ?

An electric circuit is a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow. The point where those electrons enter an electrical circuit is called the “source” of electrons.

What is Switching ?

In the Open Systems Interconnection  communications model, a switch performs the Layer 2 or Data-link layer function. That is, it simply looks at each packet or data unit and determines from a physical address (the “MAC address”) which device a data unit is intended for and switches it out toward that device.

How to make a simple Circuit ?



Review of a Book – The Naughtiest Girl -By Enid Blyton

Related imageABOUT THE AUTHOR:

Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children’s writer whose books have been among the world’s best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies. Blyton’s books are still enormously popular, and have been translated into 90 languages; her
first book, Child Whispers, a 24-page collection of poems, was published in 1922.


The Naughtiest Girl in the School is a story written by Enid Blyton published in 1940.

 The characters include-

Elizabeth, Joan, Nora, William and  Rita,Richard,Harry, John Terry, Michael, Peter.


Head Boy William and Head Girl Rita act as Judges at weekly meetings together with a Jury of twelve elected monitors, dishing out advice, praise or penalties as they see fit. Headmistresses Miss Belle and Miss Best (“the Beauty and the Beast”) explain that “We never punish anyone, Elizabeth… we leave any naughty person to the rest of the children to deal with.” In addition, pupils are expected to pool all their money and are given a considerable degree of responsibility, taking charge (up to a point) of the school gardens and stables, and being allowed to keep pets.

Elizabeth begins to enjoy life at Whyteleafe, despite her best efforts to hate everything. She even makes friends with “the Mouse”, Joan Townsend — though Joan feels that having the Bold Bad Girl as a friend is “rather like being friends with a thunderstorm! You never quite knew what Elizabeth was going to do next.”

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What is Magnetism ?

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic Related imagefield. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments.

What is the Property of Magnet ?

  1.  Magnets attract objects of iron, cobalt and nickel.
  2. The force of attraction of a magnet is greater at its poles than in the middle.
  3. Like poles of two magnets repel each other.
  4. Opposite poles of two magnets attracts each other.

Experiments with magnet


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Magnetic chip which we use in our daily life!!!


Science Project-Colour Changing Flower


What you need

  • white flowers such as daisies or hydrangeas
  • food coloring
  • several glasses, vases or test tubes if you want to see the colored water from the outside. Otherwise, you can use any cups.


  1. Fill each glass with fresh water from the tap. Put 2-5 drops of food coloring into it, one color each. You can also mix the colors (e.g. blue + yellow = green) to get all the rainbow colors.
  2. Trim at least half an inch of stem off the flowers before putting each into the glass and each time you change the water.
  3. Add flower food if it is provided.
  4. Keep them in a cool place overnight.
  5. Observe the change in colors in the petals.
  6. If you use flowers such as daisies that take longer to do this experiment, change the water entirely every 2-3 days to keep the flowers fresh for longer.

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“Sophia” The Humanoid Robot

Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics.

Hanson Robotics was founded in 2013 by Dr. David Hanson who is also the Chief Executive Officer of the company. Sophia made her first public appearance at South by Southwest Festival (SXSW) in mid-March 2016 in Austin, Texas, United States.

Sophia was inspired by both Audrey Hepburn, and David Hanson’s wife, and was activated on April 19, 2015. Her skin is made from Frubber and she is able to display more than 62 facial expressions.

In October 2017, the robot became a Saudi Arabian citizen, the first robot to receive citizenship of any country. While interviewers around the world have been impressed by the sophistication of many of Sophia’s responses to their questions, the bulk of Sophia’s meaningful statements are believed by experts to be somewhat scripted. In November 2017, Sophia was named the United Nations Development Programme’s first ever Innovation Champion, and the first non-human to be given any United Nations title.



Tanmay Bakshi

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Tanmay Bakshi is nothing like the average child you would meet. The twelve year old was first drawn to programming languages, when he was but five and wondered how his name could be displayed on his dad’s computer screen. He set out on a quest to solve simple mysteries that intrigued him and started programming with his father’s help, and he is now one of the youngest app developers in the world today.

Tanmay lives in Brampton, Canada, and built his first app for the iPhone when he was only nine years old. He might be jet-setting around the world today, delivering key-note addresses and demonstrating his apps before awestruck audiences, but recognition and success didn’t come easy.

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Optimization is the process of modifying a system to make some features of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. For instance, a computer program may be optimized so that it runs faster, or to run with less memory requirements or other resources  or to consume less energy. This is a branch of software engineering.

What are the levels of Optimization?

  1. Design level
  2. Algorithms and data structures
  3. Source code level
  4. Build level
  5. Compile level
  6. Assembly level
  7. Run Time

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Tornado in a Bottle

What you will  need :

  1. Water
  2. A clear plastic bottle with a cap (that won’t leak)
  3. Glitter
  4. Dish washing Liquid

Method :

  1. Fill the plastic bottle with water until it reaches around three quarters full.
  2. Add a few drops of dish washing liquid.
  3. Sprinkle in a few pinches of glitter (this will make your tornado easier to see).
  4. Put the cap on tightly.
  5. Turn the bottle upside down and hold it by the neck. Quickly spin the bottle in a circular motion for a few seconds, stop and look inside to see if you can see a mini tornado forming in the water. You might need to try it a few times before you get it working properly.


Make a water tornado in a bottleMake a dry ice bubbleMake Glowing Water