mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (About this sound listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculationdata processing and automated reasoning tasks.

An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function.Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing “output” and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[

The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries. It was used by Greek mathematicians , and the term derives from the 9th Century mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al’Khwārizmī latinized ‘Algoritmi’; however, a partial formalization of what would become the modern algorithm began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the “decision problem”) posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define “effective calculability or “effective method”; those formalizations included the GödelHerbrandKleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church‘s lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post‘s “Formulation 1” of 1936, and Alan Turing‘s Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939. Giving a formal definition of algorithms, corresponding to the intuitive notion, remains a challenging problem.

my favorite person(Paul Pogba)

Early life

Pogba was born in Lagny-sur-MarneSeine-et-Marne, to Guinean parents. HeImage result for paul pogba's shoesImage result for paul pogba dab is a Muslim. He has two older twin brothers who are also footballers. Florentin,Image result for paul pogbas parents the eldest, Image result for paul pogbas brotherscurrently plays for French club Saint-Étienne, while Mathias plays for Dutch club Sparta Rotterdam and the Guinean national team.Growing up he was a fan of Arsenal F.C.

Club career

Early career

Pogba began his football career at the age of six playing for US Roissy-en-Brie, a few miles south of his hometown. He spent seven seasons at the club before joining US Torcy, where he served as captain of the club’s under-13 team. After one season with Torcy, Pogba joined professional club Le Havre. In his second season at the club, Pogba captained its under-16 team to the final phase of its domestic league, the Championnat National des 16 ans. Le Havre finished second to Lens in the final group phase, finishing ahead of the likes of Lyon and Nancy. Pogba also established himself as a youth international for his country.

Manchester United

“The player [Pogba] and his parents refused to keep the arrangement because Manchester United offered very high sums of money to the parents of the [player] with the aim of obtaining the transfer of their son.”

Le Havre‘s response to Pogba’s decision to joinManchester United.

On 31 July 2009, Pogba announced that he was departing Le Havre to join the youth academy of Manchester United in England. The move surprised his parent club, as it allegedly had a “non-solicitation agreement” with Pogba, which was agreed to by not only the player but also his parents in 2006. The agreement, which was in place until the end of the 2009–10 season, allowed Le Havre to sign Pogba to an aspirant (youth) contract once the player met specific age and scholarship requirements.On 1 August, Le Havre released an official statement on its website criticising Manchester United and the Pogba family.Le Havre also announced its intent to ask FIFA to probe the situation.

In response to Le Havre’s accusations, Manchester United threatened to sue the club, while Pogba denied he was leaving Le Havre for monetary reasons, which Le Havre President Jean-Pierre Louvel had alleged to be £87,000 and a house.Le Havre was also accused by Pogba’s former club Torcy of using the same tactics it purported Manchester United to have used when the club acquired Pogba from its youth academy. On the same day of Pogba’s announcement to depart for England, Torcy released a press release on its official website criticising Le Havre’s accusations, stating, “We will not use the term ‘steal,’ but the recruiters of Le Havre acted the same way with the club in Torcy.” The club cited Le Havre’s acceptance of allowing Pogba to sign an amateur licence with the club without notifying Torcy as its primary reason why.On 7 October, Manchester United were cleared of wrongdoing by a judge appointed by FIFA, with the declaration that Pogba was not contractually linked to Le HavreDespite having the option to appeal, on 18 June 2010, Le Havre officials confirmed that the club had reached an agreement with Manchester United for the transfer of Pogba. The terms of the agreement were confidential.

Academy and call up to first team

Pogba completed his transfer to Manchester United on 7 October 2009 and made his debut with the club’s under-18 team on 10 October against Crewe Alexandra in a 2–1 defeat.He finished the 2009–10 under-18 campaign with seven goals in 21 appearances.The team finished first in their group, but lost to Arsenal 5–3 on penalties in the play-off semi-finals. In April 2010, Pogba was a part of the under-18 team that successfully defended their title at the Torneo Calcio Memorial Claudio Sassi-Sassuolo in Bologna, Italy. In the 2010–11 season, Pogba remained on the club’s academy team in the Premier Academy League and played with the team during the first three months of the season. In November 2010, he was called up to the club’s reserve team and made his debut on 2 November 2010 in a 3–1 win over Bolton Wanderers.On 10 January 2011, in the FA Youth Cup, Pogba scored a long-range goal, described as a “piledriver,” in the team’s 3–2 victory over Portsmouth. The win allowed the team to progress to the fourth round of the competition. A month later, Pogba scored a similar goal in a 3–2 defeat to West Bromwich Albion in the Academy League.

On 19 February 2011, Pogba was one of four academy players promoted to the first-team squad by manager Alex Ferguson ahead of Manchester United’s FA Cup fifth round match against Crawley Town, for which he was assigned the number 42 shirt.He continued in the under-18s for the rest of the season, helping the team to a lengthy run in the FA Youth Cup; in the semi-final encounter against Chelsea in the competition, Pogba scored a goal in the first leg, a 3–2 defeat, and provided the assist for the opening goal of the second leg, a 4–0 win. In the final, Manchester United defeated Sheffield United 6–3 on aggregate to win their tenth Youth Cup title; Pogba started and played the entire match in both legs.

Senior team appearances

Ahead of the start of the 2011–12 season, Ferguson confirmed that Pogba would feature with the senior team during the season, stating, “I mean if we hold Pogba back, what’s going to happen? He’s going to leave. You know, in a couple of years’ time when his contract is going to finish. So we have to give him the opportunity to see how he can do in the first-team and he’s got great ability.”Pogba was promoted to the club’s reserve team permanently for the 2011–12 season and made his first appearance of the season on 15 August 2011 in the team’s opening Premier Reserve League match against Arsenal. On 25 August, in the team’s second league match against Swansea City reserves, Pogba scored the second goal in a 6–0 rout.On 19 September, he was named to the first team to participate in their Football League Cup tie against Leeds United the following day, with Ferguson proclaiming, “I intend to play him [Pogba] against Leeds United.”Pogba appeared as a half-time substitute to make his professional debut as Manchester United won the match 3–0.[41]Pogba made his second appearance against Aldershot Town in the Fourth Round of the League Cup on 25 October 2011.

Pogba made his Premier League debut against Stoke City on 31 January 2012, replacing Javier Hernández in the 72nd minute. He made another substitute appearance against West Bromwich Albion on 11 March. Four days later, he made his European debut in the second leg of the team’s UEFA Europa League round of 16 tie against Spanish club Athletic Bilbao; he appeared as a substitute in the 2–1 away defeat, coming on for Michael Carrick in the 63rd minute as Manchester United lost the tie 5–3 on aggregate.


2012–2014: Top of Serie A

Pogba playing for Juventus in 2012

On 3 July 2012, Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson confirmed that Pogba had left the club after not signing a new contract.Ferguson stated that Pogba had signed for Italian club Juventus “a long time ago as far as we’re aware.” Ferguson also accused Pogba of disrespecting Manchester United, saying, “It is disappointing. I don’t think he showed us any respect at all, to be honest. I’m quite happy that if they [footballers] carry on that way, they’re probably better doing it away from us.” On 27 July, Juventus confirmed on their official website that Pogba had undergone a medical at the club, and the transfer was completed on 3 August, when he signed a four-year contract. He made his first appearance for Juventus in a pre-season friendly against Benfica in Geneva on 1 August, coming on as a 78th-minute substitute for Andrea Pirlo.

Pogba’s first competitive appearance with Juventus came in the Serie A match against Chievo on 22 September 2012, where he played the full 90 minutes.On 2 October, Pogba made his first appearance in the UEFA Champions League in a 1–1 home draw against Shakhtar Donetsk,and on 20 October, Pogba scored his first goal for the club in a 2–0 win over Napoli.  On 31 October, he started against Bologna and scored the game-winning goal in a 2–1 victory. Pogba also contributed to the opening goal scored by Fabio Quagliarella. The midfielder was subsequently praised for his performance in the match by several Italian media outlets such as la RepubblicaIl Messaggero and La Gazzetta dello Sport.

On 5 May 2013, Pogba was sent off in Juventus’ Scudetto-clinching game for spitting towards an opponent after being slapped in the face.

On 18 August 2013, Pogba was a key protagonist of Juventus’ 4–0 win over Lazio, the match that won Juventus the 2013 Italian Supercoppa. During the match, Pogba replaced Claudio Marchisio and scored the first goal of the game; he was elected Man of the Match.In December, Pogba was named 2013’s Golden Boy for the best young player in Europe.

2014–2016: Domestic success and first Champions League Final

Pogba playing for Juventus in 2014

In January 2014, Pogba was named by The Guardian as one of the ten most promising young players in Europe.On 20 February, Pogba scored his first goal in UEFA club competitions as Juventus defeated Trabzonspor 2–0 at home in the first leg of the round of 32 of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League.On 14 April, Pogba produced an assist in Juventus’s 2–0 win over Udinese, the same team that Pogba scored two magnificent goals against in the previous season. Later that week, Pogba scored the only goal in Juventus’s 1–0 win over Bologna. Pogba was also named the man of the match for his performance.[61] Pogba would prove to be a key player for the club that season, breaking into the starting line-up, and making more appearances (51) for the club than any other player across all competitions that season, also scoring 9 goals.He finished the season by winning his second consecutive Serie A title under manager Antonio Conte, and reaching the semi-finals of the Europa League.

On 20 September, under new Juventus manager Massimiliano Allegri, Pogba contributed to Juventus’s away win against Milan by providing the assist for the only goal of the game, scored by Carlos Tevez.Later that month, on 18 October, Pogba saved Juventus from a defeat against Sassuolo by scoring a decisive equaliser; he was later named Man of the Match. On 24 October, Pogba renewed his contract with Juventus, tying him to the club until 2019.  On 4 November, on his 100th appearance with the club, Pogba scored Juventus’s third goal against Olympiacos in the Champions League, helping them to win the match; this was his first ever Champions League goal.       On 22 November, he scored his first brace of the season in a 3–0 win against Lazio at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome. On 28 October, Pogba was named as one of the 23 shortlisted candidates for the 2014 Ballon d’Or; at 21, he was the youngest on the list.In 2014, Pogba was awarded the Bravo Award, by the Italian sports magazine Il Guerin Sportivo, which is awarded to the best under-23 player who has participated in European competitions.

On 11 January 2015, Pogba helped Juventus secure their first win against Napoli at the Stadio San Paolo in 14 years as he scored a volley that helped Juventus beat Napoli 1–3. On 15 January, he scored his first goal in the Coppa Italia as Juventus defeated Verona 6–1 in the round of 16 of the tournament.On 9 March, Pogba scored the only goal in a 1–0 victory against Sassuolo to put Juventus 11 points clear of Roma at the top of the league table.In the second leg of Juventus’s round of 16 match-up against Borussia Dortmund, Pogba was taken off during the first half after injuring his hamstring, and was later ruled out for two months. He returned to the starting line-up on 9 May, scoring in a 1–1 home draw against Cagliari, as Juventus celebrated winning their fourth consecutive Serie A title since 2012. On 13 May, Pogba set up Álvaro Morata‘s equaliser against Real Madrid in the second leg of the Champions League semi-final; the goal allowed Juventus win the tie 3–2 on aggregate to advance to the Champions League Final for the first time in 12 years.[76] On 20 May, Pogba set up Juventus’s first goal as they defeated Lazio 2–1 at the Stadio Olimpico in the 2015 Coppa Italia Final.[77] On 6 June 2015, Pogba started for Juventus in the 2015 UEFA Champions League Final as the club were defeated 3–1 by Barcelona at Berlin‘s Olympiastadion.[78]

On 15 July 2015, Pogba was named to the ten-man shortlist for the 2015 UEFA Best Player in Europe Award.[79] For the 2015–16 season, he was awarded the prestigious number-10 shirt, following Carlos Tevez’s departure, which had previously been worn by Alessandro Del PieroRoberto Baggio and Michel Platini.[80] On 8 August, he assisted a goal in Juventus’s 2–0 win over Lazio in the 2015 Supercoppa Italiana.[81] On 12 August, it was announced that he placed tenth in the 2015 UEFA Best Player in Europe Award.[82] On 31 October, Pogba made his 100th Serie A appearance in a 2–1 home win over Torino in the Turin Derby,[83] also scoring Juventus’s opening goal from a half-volley from outside the area.[84] On 24 November, Pogba was nominated for the 2015 UEFA Team of the Year,[85] later being named to the team on 8 January 2016.[86] Three days later he was named to the 2015 FIFA FIFPro World XI.[87]Pogba excelled in his team’s new creative position, which saw him gain more time on the ball, and played a key role in helping Juventus to the league title,[88] scoring a joint personal best of 8 goals in Serie A, while also finishing the league season as the top assist provider in Serie A, with a personal record of 12 assists, alongside Miralem Pjanić.[89][90]

Return to Manchester United

2016–17 season

Pogba playing for Manchester United in 2016

On 8 August 2016, Pogba returned to former club, Manchester United, on a five-year contract for a then-record for highest football transfer fee at €105 million (£89.3 million) plus bonuses of €5 million, surpassing the former record holder Gareth Bale.[91] Paul Pogba’s agent, Mino Raiola, received a reported €27 million from Juventus when the France midfielder joined Manchester United;[92] Juventus disclosed the fee as an auxiliary expense, for €26.154 million.[93]

On 12 August, The Football Association announced that Pogba would be suspended for Manchester United’s opening Premier League fixture of the 2016–17 season against Bournemouth, due to two yellow cards he had accumulated in the previous season’s edition of the Coppa Italia with Juventus.[94] On 19 August, he made his first appearance since returning to the club in a 2–0 home victory over Southamptonin the Premier League.[95] After the 2–1 defeat at home in the first Manchester Derby of the season on 10 September, Pogba was criticized for his lack of discipline in positioning by pundit Jamie Carragher.[96]Pogba, however, soon recovered to form and scored his first Premier League goal for United with a header against defending champions Leicester City in a 4–1 home win on 24 September.[97] He then scored twice, once from the penalty spot and then with a strike from distance, in a Europa League tie against Fenerbahçe on 20 October.[98] Manager José Mourinho defended Pogba after the game, criticizing football’s “Einsteins” for being too quick to judge the player.[99]

On 26 January 2017, Pogba scored in a 2–1 away defeat to Hull City in the second leg of the EFL Cup semi-final, which allowed Manchester United to advance to the final 3–2 on aggregate.[100]

On 24 May 2017, Pogba scored in the 18th minute of the Europa League final against Dutch club AFC Ajax, which proved to be the game-winning goal as Manchester United defeated Ajax 2–0 to win United’s first continental trophy in nine years.[101]

2017–18 season

On 13 August 2017, Pogba scored the fourth goal in a 4–0 victory over West Ham United on the opening weekend of the 2017–18 Premier League season.[102] During a 3–0 defeat of Basel during the 2017-18 UEFA Champions League group stage, Pogba tore his left hamstring and was expected to miss eight league matches.[103]

International career


Pogba with France U19 in 2012

Pogba began his international career for France with the national youth football team and earned caps at all levels for which he was eligible. Prior to his international debut, Pogba was named captain of the under-16 team by coach Guy Ferrier. He made his youth international debut on 23 September 2008 in the team’s opening match of the campaign against Wales in Llanelli. France won the match 4–2.[104] Under Pogba’s leadership, the team recorded impressive victories over Uruguay and Italy in the Tournoi du Val-de-Marne, and defeated the Republic of Ireland by a combined score of 8–2 over the course of two matches.[105][106][107][108] On 31 January 2009, he scored his first youth international goal in the 2009 Aegean Cup Final against Norway. The goal gave France a 1–0 lead and the team won the match 2–1 to win the tournament.[109]

He was a part of the team that played at the 2010 UEFA European Under-17 Championship scoring both of his goals with the team at the tournament. He scored the only goal in the team’s 1–0 victory over Portugal in the group stage and netted his second in the team’s 2–1 loss to England in the semi-finals.[110][111] Following the departure of Ferrier as the team’s youth international coach, Pogba was re-instated as captain at his age level by new coach Pierre Mankowski. Mankowski had previously been the assistant manager of the senior national team under the reign of Raymond Domenech. Pogba made his under-18 debut on 27 October 2010 at the Tournio de Limoges against Greece in a 4–1 victory.[112] On 24 March 2011, Pogba scored his first goal with the team netting the game-winning goal in a 2–1 win over Germany. The goal was scored from over 30 metres (33 yd) out.[113]

Pogba made his debut with the under-19 team in its first match of the season against Italy on 6 September 2011. In the match, he assisted on two goals, scored by Jean-Christophe Bahebeck and Anthony Koura, in a 3–1 victory.[114] On 29 February 2012, he scored his first goal for the team in a 2–1 defeat to Spain.[115] In Elite Round qualification for the 2012 UEFA European Under-19 Championship, Pogba scored the fifth goal in the team’s 6–0 rout of the Netherlands. The victory qualified France for the competition.[116] On 11 June 2012, Pogba was named to the squad to participate in the tournament. In the team’s opening group stage match against Serbia, he converted a penalty in a 3–0 win.[117] France reached the semi-finals where the team faced Spain. In the match, with France trailing 3–2 in extra time, Pogba scored the equalizing goal three minutes prior to the match’s completion to send it to penalties. However, despite Pogba converting the opening penalty for France, Les Bleuets were defeated 4–2.[118]

Due to the under-19 team’s semi-final appearance in the 2012 UEFA European Under-19 Championship, the nation qualified for the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup, which merited under-20 team appearances for Pogba. Similar to the previous two seasons, Pogba was installed as captain by Mankowski and made his under-20 debut in a 0–0 draw against China.[119] In the team’s next match against North Korea, Pogba scored the team’s second goal in a 3–1 win.[120] Pogba was the captain of the team that won France’s first ever FIFA U-20 World Cup. In that tournament held in Turkey, he played every minute of all of France’s matches except for the final group match against Spain, in which he was an unused substitute. He was named the best player of the tournament.[121]


Early career and 2014 World Cup

On 22 March 2013, Pogba made his debut for the French senior team in a 2014 World Cup qualifier against Georgia. He played the full 90 minutes in a 3–1 win.[122] Pogba then earned his second cap four days later in another 2014 World Cup qualifier against Spain, starting the match against the world champions, but picked up a yellow card in the 76th minute for unsporting behaviour, before being sent off two minutes later for a second bookable offence in a 1–0 loss.[123] He scored his first international goal against Belarus on 10 September 2013 in a 4–2 victory, once again during a 2014 World Cup qualifier.[124]

On 6 June 2014, Pogba was named in France’s squad for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[125] On 15 June, he started in central midfield in the team’s first World Cup fixture – a 3–0 victory over Honduras – suffering a foul from Wilson Palacios which led to a red card for the Honduran and a penalty kick, which was converted by Karim Benzema to give France the lead.[126] He appeared as a substitute in the team’s second match, assisting a goal for Benzema in a 5–2 victory of Switzerland.[127] In the round of 16, Pogba scored a 79th minute opening goal and was named man of the match by FIFA[128] as Les Bleus defeated Nigeria 2–0 in Brasília.[129] On 13 July 2014, Pogba was named the tournament’s Best Young Player.[130]

Euro 2016

In May 2016, Pogba was named by national side manager Didier Deschamps to France’s 23-man squad for UEFA Euro 2016, to be played on home soil.[131] Although much was expected of Pogba at the upcoming European Championships, in France’s opening match of the tournament, a 2–1 win over Romania on 10 June, he endured criticism for his perceived negative performance after being played out of position, and was subsequently left on the bench by Deschamps for his nation’s second group match, later coming on as a second-half substitute in a 2–0 win over Albania.[132] In the round of the 16, he was once again the target of media scrutiny for conceding an early penalty against Ireland, prompting former England international Gary Lineker to tweet: “Is Pogba the world’s most overrated player?”; France eventually came from behind to win the match 2–1.[132]

In the quarter-final match against Iceland on 3 July, at the Stade de France, Pogba was able to recapture his form, putting on a dominant performance in his new midfield role, as he scored his nation’s second goal of the night from a header following Antoine Griezmann‘s corner, which he had previously helped to obtain;[132] he later started the play which led to Griezmann’s goal, as the host nation advanced to the semi-finals of the competition following a 5–2 win.[133] In the semi-final match against Germany four days later, Pogba was once again started in a deep-lying midfield role alongside Blaise Matuidi in a 4–2–3–1 formation; following N’Golo Kanté‘s introduction in the second half, he was shifted to a more advanced role, which gave him more tactical freedom, and he subsequently helped to create Griezmann’s second goal of the match, as the hosts defeated the reigning World Cup Champions 2–0 to advance to the final of the tournament,[134][135] where they suffered a 1–0 extra-time defeat to Portugal.[136]

Style of play

Primarily a central midfielder, although he is also capable of playing on the left, in a holding role, or even as an attacking midfielder,[4][137]Pogba has been described by his club Manchester United as a “powerful, skilful, and creative” player who has “an eye for goal and a penchant for the spectacular.”[138] In Italy, he gained the nicknames Il Polpo Paul (“Paul the Octopus“) for his long legs that look like tentacles during tackling or running[139] and “Pogboom” for his explosive playing style and energy on the pitch.[140] A large, quick, hard-working and physically strong player, he excels in the air, and is also known for his stamina, as well as his powerful and accurate striking ability from distance; he has also drawn praise for his finesse, technique, flair, and dribbling skills.[137][141][142][143] His characteristics and playing role in midfield have led him to be compared with former France international Patrick Vieira.[139]

During his final season with Juventus, Pogba was deployed in a more advanced and creative midfield role rather than in his usual box-to-box role,[137] which saw him gain more time on the ball, and he excelled as the team’s main playmaker, due to his vision, and passing range;[88][141][142][144] his performances in this role saw him develop from a promising youngster into one of the best and most complete midfielders in the world.[145][146] Upon Pogba’s departure from Juventus in 2016, his former teammate Gianluigi Buffon compared him to French former playmakers Michel Platini and Zinedine Zidane, and also praised his ability, leadership, work-rate and attitude, both on the pitch and in training, stating that he “ a tremendous warrior on the pitch but also has so much talent. His control of the ball and the way he can swiftly change the play from defence to attack is special.”[147][148]

Outside football

2017 MTV EMA

Pogba with his brothers, Florentin and Mathias attended the 2017 MTV Europe Music Awards in London, where he also presented the “Best Song” award to Canadian singer, Shawn Mendes alongside British actress, Natalie Dormer.[149]

Career statistics


Pogba playing for Manchester United in 2017

As of match played 11 February 2018
Appearances and goals by club, season and competition
Club Season League National Cup[a] League Cup Europe Other Total
Division Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
Manchester United 2010–11[150] Premier League 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2011–12[151] Premier League 3 0 0 0 3 0 1[b] 0 0 0 7 0
Total 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 7 0
Juventus 2012–13[152] Serie A 27 5 2 0 8[c] 0 0 0 37 5
2013–14[152] Serie A 36 7 0 0 14[d] 1 1[e] 1 51 9
2014–15[152] Serie A 26 8 4 1 10[c] 1 1[e] 0 41 10
2015–16[152] Serie A 35 8 5 1 8[c] 1 1[e] 0 49 10
Total 124 28 11 2 40 3 3 1 178 34
Manchester United 2016–17[153] Premier League 30 5 2 0 4 1 15[b] 3 51 9
2017–18[154] Premier League 17 3 1 0 1 0 3[c] 0 1[f] 0 23 3
Total 47 8 3 0 5 1 18 3 1 0 74 12
Career total 174 36 14 2 8 1 59 6 4 1 259 46
  1. Jump up^ Appearances in Coppa Italia and FA Cup
  2. Jump up to:a b Appearance(s) in UEFA Europa League
  3. Jump up to:a b c d Appearances in UEFA Champions League
  4. Jump up^ Six appearances in UEFA Champions League, eight appearances and one goal in UEFA Europa League
  5. Jump up to:a b c Appearance in Supercoppa Italiana
  6. Jump up^ Appearance in UEFA Super Cup


As of match played on 3 September 2017[155]
Appearances and goals by national team and year
National team Year Apps Goals
France 2013 7 1
2014 15 4
2015 5 0
2016 17 3
2017 5 0
Total 49 8

International goals

As of match played 3 September 2017. France score listed first, score column indicates score after each Pogba goal.[155]
International goals by date, venue, cap, opponent, score, result and competition
No. Date Venue Cap Opponent Score Result Competition
1 10 September 2013 Central StadiumGomel, Belarus 3  Belarus 4–2 4–2 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification
2 27 May 2014 Stade de FranceSaint-Denis, France 9  Norway 1–0 4–0 Friendly
3 30 June 2014 Estádio Nacional Mané GarrinchaBrasília, Brazil 15  Nigeria 1–0 2–0 2014 FIFA World Cup
4 7 September 2014 Partizan StadiumBelgrade, Serbia 18  Serbia 1–0 1–1 Friendly
5 11 October 2014 Stade de FranceSaint-Denis, France 19  Portugal 2–0 2–1 Friendly
6 3 July 2016 Stade de FranceSaint-Denis, France 36  Iceland 2–0 5–2 UEFA Euro 2016
7 10 October 2016 Amsterdam ArenaAmsterdNetherlands 42  Netherlands 1–0 1–0 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification
8 11 November 2016 Stade de FranceSaint-Denis, France 43  Sweden 1–1 2–1 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification



Manchester United[152]

France U20[157]


Review of a Book- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child BY J.K ROWLING


 Joanne Rowling, writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, screenwriter, and producer who is best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 400 million copies. They have become the best-selling book series in history and been the basis for a series of films, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and was a producer on the final films in the series.


The book jacket touts “Cursed Child” as “The eighth story. Nineteen years later.” The play is based on an original story written by Rowling, playwright Jack Thorne and the play’s director, John Tiffany. Like any script, it is dialogue driven, and this edition offers limited stage direction details. But once you begin reading, your imagination fills in the background, the stage set and the characters’ physical appearance and voices. Potter fans will slide quite easily into this beloved and familiar world.ABOUT THE CHARACTERS:


“Cursed Child” opens, most fittingly, at King’s Cross Station, the location of Platform Nine and Three-Quarters. Harry, now 37, and wife, Ginny Weasley, are waiting with sons Albus Severus — named for two famous Hogwarts headmasters — and James. Albus and James are ready to board the Hogwarts Express, which will take them to the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry that their parents attended. At the station we see other old friends. Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger are waiting with their daughter, Rose, and Draco Malfoy, always a thorn in Harry’s side, is waiting with his son, Scorpius.

More than anything, “Cursed Child” is about the relationships between fathers and their children. Sadly, we see, poor Harry may be cursed forever by the trauma of losing his parents to the dark wizard Lord Voldemort who also tried to Harry when he was a baby. And Harry’s fears for Albus’ well-being cause confrontations fraught with anger between this father and son. In one scene, Harry and Albus say the worst things a father and child can say: “I just wish you weren’t my Dad,” Albus says. Harry responds, “There are times I wish you weren’t my son.”

The stage play is more than five hours long. The script takes less time to read. “Cursed Child” is a most satisfying and well-done follow-up to “Deathly Hallows.” It’s beautifully written and achieves Shakespearean levels of drama as it delves into the past’s hold on the present, the power of familial love, the importance of friendship and the healing power of forgiveness.


An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitationweak interaction and strong interaction).

The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law. The force created by the electric field is much stronger than the force created by the magnetic field.

From a classical perspective in the history of electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles.


what is alpha centauri????

Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alpha Cenα Cen) is the closest star Alpha, Beta and Proxima Centauri (1).jpgsystem to the Solar System, being 4.37 light-years (1.34 pc) from the Sun. It consists of three stars: Alpha Centauri A (also named Rigil Kentaurus) and Alpha Centauri B, which form the binary star Alpha Centauri AB, and a small and faint red dwarf, Alpha Centauri C (also named Proxima Centauri), which is loosely gravitationally bound and orbiting the other two at a current distance of about 13,000 astronomical units (0.21 ly). To the unaided eye, the two main components appear as a single point of light with an apparent visual magnitude of −0.27, forming the brightest star in the southern constellation of Centaurus and is the third-brightest star in the night sky, outshone only by Sirius and Canopus.

Alpha Centauri A (α Cen A) has 1.1 times the mass and 1.519 times the luminosity of the Sun, while Alpha Centauri B (α Cen B) is smaller and cooler, at 0.907 times the Sun’s mass and 0.445 times its visual luminosity. During the pair’s 79.91-year orbit about a common centre the distance between them varies from nearly that between Pluto and the Sun (35.6 AU) to that between Saturn and the Sun (11.2 AU).

Proxima Centauri (α Cen C) is at the slightly smaller distance of 4.24 light-years (1.30 pc) from the Sun, making it the closest star to the Sun, even though it is not visible to the eye. The separation of Proxima from Alpha Centauri AB is about 13,000 astronomical units (0.21 ly),equivalent to about 430 times the size of Neptune‘s orbit. Proxima Centauri b, an Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri, was

electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).

The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using a device called an ammeter.

Electric currents cause Joule heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators.

The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal. These conduction electrons are the charge carriers in metal conductors.


In a conductive material, the moving charged particles which constitute the electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits, the positively charged atomic nuclei are held in a fixed position, and the negatively charged electrons are free to move, carrying their charge from one place to another. In other materials, notably the semiconductors, the charge carriers can be positive or negative, depending on the dopant used. Positive and negative charge carriers may even be present at the same time, as happens in an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

A flow of positive charges gives the same electric current, and has the same effect in a circuit, as an equal flow of negative charges in the opposite direction. Since current can be the flow of either positive or negative charges, or both, a convention is needed for the direction of current that is independent of the type of charge carriers. The direction of conventional current is arbitrarily defined as the same direction as positive charges flow.

Since electrons, the charge carriers in metal wires and most other parts of electric circuits, have a negative charge, as a consequence, they flow in the opposite direction of conventional current flow in an electrical circuit.

steve jobs

who is steve jobs??????.

Steven Paul Jobs  was born on February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneurbusiness magnateinventor, and industrial designer. He was the chairmanchief executive officer (CEO), and co-founder of Apple Inc.; CEO and majority shareholder of Pixar; a member of The Walt Disney Company‘s board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar; and the founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT. Jobs and Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak are widely recognized as pioneers of the microcomputer revolutionof the 1970s and 1980s.


Steve Jobs’s biological parents were Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble. His adoptive parents were Paul Jobs and Clara Hagopian.

His biological father, Abdulfattah “John” Jandali (Arabic: عبد الفتاح الجندلي) (b. March 15, 1931), grew up in Homs, Syria and was born into an Arab Muslim household.Jandali is the son of a self-made millionaire who did not go to college and a mother who was a traditional housewife.While an undergraduate at the American University of BeirutLebanon, he was a student activist and spent time in jail for his political activities.[11] Although Jandali initially wanted to study law, he eventually decided to study economics and political science.He pursued a PhD in the latter subject at the University of Wisconsin, where he met Joanne Carole Schieble (b. August 1, 1932), a Catholic of Swiss and German descent, who grew up on a farm in Wisconsin.As a doctoral candidate, Jandali was a teaching assistant for a course Schieble was taking, although both were the same age.[14] Mona Simpson, Jobs’s full biological sister, notes that her maternal grandparents were not happy that their daughter was dating Jandali: “it wasn’t that he was Middle-Eastern so much as that he was a Muslim. But there are a lot of Arabs in Michigan and Wisconsin. So it’s not that unusual.”Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs’s official biographer, additionally states that Schieble’s father “threatened to cut Joanne off completely” if she continued the relationship


Jobs’s biological mother Schieble became pregnant with him in 1954 when she and Jandali spent the summer with his family in Homs, Syria. Jandali has stated that he “was very much in love with Joanne … but sadly, her father was a tyrant, and forbade her to marry me, as I was from Syria. And so she told me she wanted to give the baby up for adoption.”Jobs told his official biographer that Schieble’s father was dying at the time, Schieble did not want to aggravate him, and both felt that at 23 they were too young to marry. In addition, as there was a strong stigma against bearing a child out of wedlock and raising it as a single mother, and as abortions were illegal and dangerous, adoption was the only option women had in the United States in 1954. According to Jandali, Schieble deliberately did not involve him in the process: “without telling me, Joanne upped and left to move to San Francisco to have the baby without anyone knowing, including me … she did not want to bring shame onto the family and thought this was the best for everyone.”Schieble put herself in the care of a “doctor who sheltered mothers, delivered their babies, and quietly arranged closed adoptions.


Paul and Clara adopted Jobs’s sister Patricia in 1957and the family moved to Mountain View, California in 1961.It was during this time that Paul built a workbench in his garage for his son in order to “pass along his love of mechanics.”Jobs, meanwhile, admired his father’s craftsmanship “because he knew how to build anything. If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him … I wasn’t that into fixing cars … but I was eager to hang out with my dad.” By the time he was ten, Jobs was deeply involved in electronics and befriended many of the engineers who lived in the neighborhood. He had difficulty making friends with children his own age, however, and was seen by his classmates as a “loner.”

homstead high

The location of the Los Altos home meant that Jobs would be able to attend Homestead High School in (and with strong ties to) Silicon Valley.[12] He began his first year there in late 1968 along with Fernandez.Neither Jobs nor Fernandez (whose father was a lawyer) came from engineering households and thus decided to enroll in John McCollum’s “Electronics 1.”McCollum and the rebellious Jobs (who had grown his hair long and become involved in the growing counterculture) would eventually clash and Jobs began to lose interest in the class. He also had no interest in sports and would later say that he didn’t have what it took to “be a jock. I was always a loner.

He underwent a change during mid-1970: “I got for the first time; I discovered Shakespeare, Dylan Thomas, and all that classic stuff. I read Moby  and went back as a junior taking creative writing classes.”Jobs also later noted to his official biographer that “I started to listen to music a whole lot, and I started to read more outside of just science and technology—ShakespearePlato. I loved King Lear … when I was a senior I had this phenomenal AP English class. The teacher was this guy who looked like Ernest Hemingway. He took a bunch of us snowshoeing in Yosemite.” From that point, Jobs developed two different circles of friends: those who were involved in electronics and engineering and those who were interested in art and literature. These dual interests were particularly reflected during Jobs’s senior year as his best friends were Wozniak and his first girlfriend, the artistic Homestead junior Chrisann Brennan.

In 1971 after Wozniak began attending University of California, Berkeley, Jobs would visit him there a few times a week. This experience led him to study in nearby Stanford University‘s student union. Jobs also decided that rather than join the electronics club, he would put on light shows with a friend for Homestead’s avant-garde Jazz program. He was described by a Homestead classmate as “kind of a brain and kind of a hippie … but he never fit into either group. He was smart enough to be a nerd, but wasn’t nerdy. And he was too intellectual for the hippies, who just wanted to get wasted all the time. He was kind of an outsider. In high school everything revolved around what group you were in. and if you weren’t in a carefully defined group, you weren’t anybody. He was an individual, in a world where individuality was suspect.” By his senior year in late 1971, he was taking freshman English class at Stanford and working on a Homestead underground film project with Chrisann. In mid-1972, after graduation and before leaving for Reed College, Jobs and Brennan rented a house from their other roommate, Al. During the summer, Brennan, Jobs, and Steve Wozniak found an advertisement posted on the De Anza College bulletin board for a job that required people to dress up as characters from Alice in Wonderland. Brennan portrayed Alice while Wozniak, Jobs, and Al portrayed the White Rabbit and the Mad Hatter.

Reed College

“I was interested in Eastern mysticism which hit the shores about then. At Reed there was a constant flow of people stopping by – from Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert, to Gary Snyder. There was a constant flow of intellectual questioning about the truth of life. That was the time when every college student in the country read Be Here Now and Diet for a Small Planet.”

—Steve Jobs

Later in the year, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Reed was an expensive college which Paul and Clara could ill afford. They were spending much of their life savings on their son’s higher education. Brennan remained involved with Jobs while he was at Reed College. She also met his Reed friend Daniel Kottke for the first time.obs also became friends with Reed’s student body president, Robert Friedland.

Brennan (who was now a senior at Homestead) did not have plans to attend college, and was supportive of Jobs when he told her he planned to drop out of Reed because he did not want to spend his parents’ money on it (neither her father nor Jobs’s adoptive parents had gone to college). He continued to attend by auditing classes, including a course on calligraphy taught by Robert Palladino, but since he was no longer an official student, Brennan stopped visiting him. Jobs later asked her to come and live with him in a house he rented near the Reed campus, but she refused. He had started seeing other women, and she was interested in someone she met in her art class. Brennan speculates that the house was Jobs’s attempt to make their relationship monogamous again.In a 2005 commencement speech for Stanford University, Jobs states that during this period, he slept on the floor in friends’ dorm rooms, returned Coke bottles for food money, and got weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. In that same speech, Jobs said: “If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.”


In mid-1972, Jobs moved back to the San Francisco Bay Area and was renting his own apartment. Brennan states by this point that their “relationship was complicated. I couldn’t break the connection and I couldn’t commit. Steve couldn’t either.” Jobs hitchhiked and worked around the West Coast and Brennan would occasionally join him. At the same time, Brennan notes, “little by little, Steve and I separated. But we were never able to fully let go. We never talked about breaking up or going our separate ways and we didn’t have that conversation where one person says it’s over.” They continued to grow apart, but Jobs would still seek her out, and visit her while she was working in a health food store or as a live-in babysitter. They remained involved with each other while continuing to see other people.

In 1973, Steve Wozniak designed his own version of the classic video game Pong. After finishing it, Wozniak gave the board to Jobs, who then took the game down to Atari, Inc. in Los Gatos, California. Atari thought that Jobs had built it and gave him a job as a technician. Atari’s cofounder Nolan Bushnell later described him as “difficult but valuable”, pointing out that “he was very often the smartest guy in the room, and he would let people know that.”

By early 1973, Jobs was living what Brennan describes as a “simple life” in a Los Gatos cabin, working at Atari, and saving money for his impending trip to India. Brennan visited him twice at the cabin. She states in her memoir that her memories of this cabin consist of Jobs reading Be Here Now (and giving her a copy), listening to South Indian music, and using a Japanese meditation pillow. Brennan felt that he was more distant and negative toward her. Brennan states in her memoir that she met with Jobs right before he left for India and that he tried to give her a $100 bill that he had earned at Atari. She initially refused to accept it but eventually accepted the money.

Jobs traveled to India in mid-1974to visit Neem Karoli Baba at his Kainchi ashram with his Reed friend (and eventual Apple employee) Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. When they got to the Neem Karoli ashram, it was almost deserted because Neem Karoli Baba had died in September 1973.Then they made a long trek up a dry riverbed to an ashram of Haidakhan Babaji. In India, they spent a lot of time on bus rides from Delhi to Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.

After staying for seven months, Jobs left India and returned to the US ahead of Daniel Kottke. Jobs had changed his appearance; his head was shaved and he wore traditional Indian clothing. During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, later calling his LSD experiences “one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life. He spent a period at the All One Farm, a commune in Oregon that was owned by Robert Friedland. Brennan joined him there for a period.

During this time period, Jobs and Brennan both became practitioners of Zen Buddhism through the Zen master Kōbun Chino Otogawa. Jobs was living with his parents again, in their backyard toolshed which he had converted into a bedroom with a sleeping bag, mat, books, a candle, and a meditation pillow.Jobs engaged in lengthy meditation retreats at the Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, the oldest Sōtō Zen monastery in the US.He considered taking up monastic residence at Eihei-ji in Japan, and maintained a lifelong appreciation for Zen. Jobs would later say that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.

Jobs then returned to Atari and was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcade video game Breakout. According to Bushnell, Atari offered US$100 for each TTL chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniak reduced the TTL count to 46, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line.According to Wozniak, Jobs told him that Atari gave them only $700 (instead of the $5,000 paid out), and that Wozniak’s share was thus $350.Wozniak did not learn about the actual bonus until ten years later, but said that if Jobs had told him about it and explained that he needed the money, Wozniak would have given it to him.

Wozniak had designed a low-cost digital “blue box” to generate the necessary tones to manipulate the telephone network, allowing free long-distance calls. Jobs decided that they could make money selling it. The clandestine sales of the illegal “blue boxes” went well and perhaps planted the seed in Jobs’s mind that electronics could be both fun and profitable Jobs, in a 1994 interview, recalled that it took six months for him and Wozniak to figure out how to build the blue boxes.Jobs said that if not for the blue boxes, there would have been no Apple. He states it showed them that they could take on large companies and beat them.

Jobs and Wozniak attended meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club in 1975, which was a stepping stone to the development and marketing of the first Apple computer.


In 1976, Wozniak invented the Apple I computer and showed it to Jobs, who suggested that they sell it. Jobs, Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne formed Apple Computer (now called Apple Inc.) in the garage of Jobs’s Los Altos home on Crist Drive.[46] Wayne stayed only a short time, leaving Jobs and Wozniak as the active primary cofounders of the company.[47] The two decided on the name “Apple” after Jobs had returned from the All One Farm commune in Oregon, where he would spend time in the farm’s apple orchard.[48] A neighbor on Crist Drive recalled Jobs as an odd individual who would greet his clients “with his underwear hanging out, barefoot and hippie-like.”[21] Another neighbor, Larry Waterland, who had just earned his PhD in chemical engineering at Stanford, recalled dismissing Jobs’s budding business: ” ‘You punched cards, put them in a big deck,’ he said about the mainframe machines of that time. ‘Steve took me over to the garage. He had a circuit board with a chip on it, a DuMont TV set, a Panasonic cassette tape deck and a keyboard. He said, ‘This is an Apple computer.’ I said, ‘You’ve got to be joking.’ I dismissed the whole idea.’ “[21] Jobs’s friend from Reed College and India, Daniel Kottke, recalled that he “was the only person who worked in the garage … Woz would show up once a week with his latest code. Steve Jobs didn’t get his hands dirty in that sense.” Kottke also stated that much of the early work took place in Jobs’s kitchen, where he spent hours on the phone trying to find investors for the company.[21]

They received funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product marketing manager and engineer Mike Markkula.[49] Scott McNealy, one of the cofounders of Sun Microsystems, said that Jobs broke a “glass age ceiling” in Silicon Valley because he’d created a very successful company at a young age.[44]

“For what characterizes Apple is that its scientific staff always acted and performed like artists – in a field filled with dry personalities limited by the rational and binary worlds they inhabit, Apple’s engineering teams had passion. They always believed that what they were doing was important and, most of all, fun. Working at Apple was never just a job; it was also a crusade, a mission, to bring better computer power to people. At its roots that attitude came from Steve Jobs. It was “Power to the People“, the slogan of the sixties, rewritten in technology for the eighties and called Macintosh.”

—Jeffrey S. Young, Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward (1987).[15]

After she returned from her own journey to India, Brennan visited Jobs at his parents’ home, where he was still living. It was during this period that Jobs and Brennan fell in love again, as Brennan noted changes in him that she attributes to Kobun (whom she was also still following). It was also at this time that Jobs displayed a prototype Apple computer for Brennan and his parents in their living room. Brennan notes a shift in this time period, where the two main influences on Jobs were Apple and Kobun. By the early 1977, she and Jobs would spend time together at her home at Duveneck Ranch in Los Altos, which served as a hostel and environmental education center. Brennan also worked there as a teacher for inner city children who came to learn about the farm.[18]

In 1977, Jobs and Wozniak introduced the Apple II at the West Coast Computer Faire. It was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer and was one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products,[50] It was designed primarily by Steve Wozniak. Jobs oversaw the development of the Apple II’s unusual case[12] and Rod Holtdeveloped the unique power supply.[51]

Jobs usually went to work wearing a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by Issey Miyake (it was sometimes reported as St. Croix brand), Levi’s 501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991 sneakers.[52][53] He said his choice was inspired by that of Stuart Geman, a noted applied mathematics professor at Brown University. Jobs told his biographer Walter Isaacson “…he came to like the idea of having a uniform for himself, both because of its daily convenience (the rationale he claimed) and its ability to convey a signature style.”[52]

Jobs and Apple became more successful, and his relationship with Brennan grew more complex. In 1977, the success of Apple was now a part of their relationship, and Brennan, Daniel Kottke, and Jobs moved into a house near the Apple office in Cupertino.[18] Brennan eventually took a position in the shipping department at Apple .[18][54] Brennan’s relationship with Jobs was deteriorating as his position with Apple grew, and she began to consider ending the relationship through small changes. In October 1977, Brennan was approached by Rod Holt, who asked her to take “a paid apprenticeship designing blueprints for the Apples.”[18] Both Holt and Jobs felt that it would be a good position for her, given her artistic abilities. Holt was particularly eager that she take the position and puzzled by her ambivalence toward it. Brennan’s decision, however, was overshadowed by the fact that she realized she was pregnant and that Jobs was the father. It took her a few days to tell Jobs, whose face, according to Brennan “turned ” at the news. At the same time, according to Brennan, at the beginning of her third trimester, Jobs said to her: “I never wanted to ask that you get an abortion. I just didn’t want to do that.”[18] He also refused to discuss the pregnancy with her.[12] Brennan herself felt confused about what to do. She was estranged from her mother and afraid to discuss the matter with her father. She also did not feel comfortable with the idea of having an abortion. She chose instead to discuss the matter with Kobun, who encouraged her to have and keep the baby, and pledged his support. Meanwhile, Holt was waiting for her decision on the internship. Brennan states that Jobs continued to encourage her to take the internship, stating she could “be pregnant and work at Apple, you can take the job. I don’t get what the problem is.”[18] Brennan however notes that she “felt so ashamed: the thought of my growing belly in the professional environment at Apple, with the child being his, while he was unpredictable, in turn being punishing and sentimentally ridiculous. I could not have endured it.”[18]

Brennan turned down the internship and decided to leave Apple. She stated that Jobs told her “If you give up this baby for adoption, you will be sorry” and “I am never going to help you.”[18] Now alone, Brennan was on welfare and cleaning houses to earn money. She would sometimes ask Jobs for money but he always refused. Brennan hid her pregnancy for as long as she could, living in a variety of homes and continuing her work with Zen meditation. At the same time, according to Brennan, Jobs “started to seed people with the notion that I slept around and he was infertile, which meant that this could not be his child.” A few weeks before she was due to give birth, Brennan was invited to deliver her baby at the All One Farm and she accepted the offer.[18] When Jobs was 23 (the same age as his biological parents when they had him)[12] Brennan gave birth to her baby, Lisa Brennan, on May 17, 1978.[18][55]

“Dear Mike, This morning’s papers carried suggestions that Apple is considering removing me as chairman. I don’t know the source of these reports, but they are both misleading to the public and unfair to me. You will recall that at last Thursday’s Board meeting I stated I had decided to start a new venture, and I tendered my resignation as chairman. The Board declined to accept my resignation and asked me to defer it for a week. I agreed to do so in light of the encouragement the Board offered with regard to the proposed new venture and the indications that Apple would invest in it. On Friday, after I told John Sculley who would be joining me, he confirmed Apple’s willingness to discuss areas of possible collaboration between Apple and my new venture. Subsequently the Company appears to be adopting a hostile posture toward me and the new venture. Accordingly, I must insist upon the immediate acceptance of my resignation. I would hope that in any statement it feels it must issue, the Company will make it clear that the decision to resign as chairman was mine. I find myself both saddened and perplexed by the management’s conduct in this matter which seems to me contrary to Apple’s best interests. Those interests remain a matter of deep concern to me, both because of my past association with Apple and the substantial investment I retain in it. I continue to hope that calmer voices within the Company may yet be heard. Some Company representatives have said they fear I will use proprietary Apple technology in my new venture. There is no basis for any such concern. If that concern is the real source of Apple’s hostility to the venture, I can allay it. As you know, the company’s recent re-organization left me with no work to do and no access even to regular management reports. I am but 30 and want still to contribute and achieve. After what we have accomplished together, I would wish our parting to be both amicable and dignified. Yours sincerely, Steven P. Jobs.”

—Steve Jobs, letter of resignation from Apple Computer, September 17th, 1985.[15]

Jobs went there for the birth after he was contacted by Robert Friedland, their mutual friend and the farm owner. While distant, Jobs worked with her on a name for the baby, which they discussed while sitting in the fields on a blanket. Brennan suggested the name “Lisa” which Jobs also liked and notes that Jobs was very attached to the name “Lisa” while he “was also publicly denying paternity.” She would discover later that during this time, Jobs was preparing to unveil a new kind of computer that he wanted to give a female name (his first choice was “Claire” after St. Clare). She also stated that she never gave him permission to use the baby’s name for a computer and he hid the plans from her. Jobs also worked with his team to come up with the phrase, “Local Integrated Software Architecture” as an alternative explanation for the Apple Lisa[56] (decades later, however, Jobs admitted to his biographer Walter Isaacson that “obviously, it was named for my daughter”[57]). Brennan would come under intense criticism from Jobs, who claimed that “she doesn’t want money, she just wants me.” According to Brennan, Apple’s Mike Scott wanted Jobs to give her money, while other Apple executives “advised him to ignore me or fight if I tried to go after a paternity settlement.”[18]

When Jobs denied paternity, a DNA test established him as Lisa’s father. It required him to give Brennan $385 a month in addition to returning the welfare money she had received. Jobs gave her $500 a month at the time when Apple went public, and Jobs became a millionaire. Brennan worked as a waitress in Palo Alto. Later, Brennan agreed to give an interview with Michael Moritz for Time magazine for its Time Person of the Yearspecial, released on January 3, 1983, in which she discussed her relationship with Jobs. Rather than name Jobs the Person of the Year, the magazine named the computer the “Machine of the Year”.[58] In the issue, Jobs questioned the reliability of the paternity test (which stated that the “probability of paternity for Jobs, Steven… is 94.1%”).[59] Jobs responded by arguing that “28% of the male population of the United States could be the father.”[18][59] Time also noted that “the baby girl and the machine on which Apple has placed so much hope for the future share the same name: Lisa.”[59]

Jobs was worth a million dollars when he was 23 in 1978, 10 million when he was 24, and over 100 million when he was 25. He was also one of the youngest “people ever to make the Forbes list of the nation’s richest people – and one of only a handful to have done it themselves, without inherited wealth.”[15]

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple’s CEO, asking, “Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?”[60]

In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in the two top floors of The San Remo, a Manhattan building with a politically progressive reputation. Although he never lived there,[61] he spent years renovating it with the help of I. M. Pei. In 2003, he sold it to U2 singer Bono.

In 1984, Jobs bought the Jackling House and estate, and resided there for a decade. After that, he leased it out for several years until 2000 when he stopped maintaining the house, allowing exposure to the weather to degrade it. In 2004, Jobs received permission from the town of Woodside to demolish the house in order to build a smaller contemporary styled one. After a few years in court, the house was finally demolished in 2011, a few months before he died.[62]

In early 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh, which was based on The Lisa (and Xerox PARC’s mouse-driven graphical user interface).[63][64] The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled “1984.” At Apple’s annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as “pandemonium.”[65]

Despite the fanfare, the expensive Macintosh was a hard sell.[66] Shortly after its release in 1985, Bill Gates‘s then-developing company, Microsoft, threatened to stop developing Mac applications unless it was granted “a license for the Mac operating system software. Microsoft was developing its graphical user interface … for DOS, which it was calling Windows and didn’t want Apple to sue over the similarities between the Windows GUI and the Mac interface.”[67] Sculley granted Microsoft the license which later led to problems for Apple.[67] In addition, cheap IBM PC clones that ran on Microsoft software and had a graphical user interface began to appear. Although the Macintosh preceded the clones, it was far more expensive, so “through the late ’80s, the Windows user interface was getting better and better and was thus taking increasingly more share from Apple.”[68] Windows based IBM-PC clones also led to the development of additional GUIs such as IBM’s TopView or Digital Research’s GEM,[68] and thus “the graphical user interface was beginning to be taken for granted, undermining the most apparent advantage of the Mac…it seemed clear as the ’80s wound down that Apple couldn’t go it alone indefinitely against the whole IBM-clone market.”[68]

External video
 Machine That Changed The World, The; Paperback Computer, The; Interview with Steve Jobs, 1990, 50:08, 05/14/1990, WGBH Media Library & Archives[69]

Sculley’s and Jobs’s respective visions for the company greatly differed. The former favored open architecture computers like the Apple II, sold to education, small business, and home markets less vulnerable to IBM. Jobs wanted the company to focus on the closed architecture Macintosh as a business alternative to the IBM PC. President and CEO Sculley had little control over chairman of the board Jobs’s Macintosh division; it and the Apple II division operated like separate companies, duplicating services.[70] Although its products provided 85% of Apple’s sales in early 1985, the company’s January 1985 annual meeting did not mention the Apple II division or employees. Many left including Wozniak, who stated that the company had “been going in the wrong direction for the last five years” and sold most of his stock.[71] The Macintosh’s failure to defeat the PC strengthened Sculley’s position in the company.

In May 1985, Sculley—encouraged by Arthur Rock—decided to reorganize Apple, and proposed a plan to the board that would remove Jobs from the Macintosh group and put him in charge of “New Product Development.” This move would effectively render Jobs powerless within Apple.[15] In response, Jobs then developed a plan to get rid of Sculley and take over Apple. However, Jobs was confronted after the plan was leaked, and he said that he would leave Apple. The Board declined his resignation and asked him to reconsider. Sculley also told Jobs that he had all of the votes needed to go ahead with the reorganization. A few months later, on September 17, 1985, Jobs submitted a letter of resignation to the Apple Board. Five additional senior Apple employees also resigned and joined Jobs in his new venture, NeXT.[15]

next computers


Following his resignation from Apple in 1985, Jobs founded NeXT Inc.[72] with $7 million. A year later he was running out of money, and he sought venture capital with no product on the horizon. Eventually, Jobs attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot, who invested heavily in the company.[73] The NeXT computer was shown to the world in what was considered Jobs’s comeback event,[74] a lavish invitation only gala launch event[75] that was described as a multimedia extravaganza.[76] The celebration was held at the Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall, San Francisco, California on Wednesday October 12, 1988. Steve Wozniak said in a 2013 interview that while Jobs was at NeXT he was “really getting his head together”.[77]

NeXT workstations were first released in 1990 and priced at US$9,999. Like the Apple Lisa, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced and designed for the education sector, but was largely dismissed as cost-prohibitive for educational institutions.[78] The NeXT workstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them its object-oriented software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial, scientific, and academic community, highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port. Making use of a NeXT computer, English computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 at CERN in Switzerland.[79]

The revised, second generation NeXTcube was released in 1990. Jobs touted it as the first “interpersonal” computer that would replace the personal computer. With its innovative NeXTMail multimedia email system, NeXTcube could share voice, image, graphics, and video in email for the first time. “Interpersonal computing is going to revolutionize human communications and groupwork”, Jobs told reporters.[80] Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by the development of and attention to NeXTcube’s magnesium case.[81] This put considerable strain on NeXT’s hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel.[82] The company reported its first profit of $1.03 million in 1994.[73] In 1996, NeXT Software, Inc. released WebObjects, a framework for Web application development. After NeXT was acquired by Apple Inc. in 1997, WebObjects was used to build and run the Apple Store,[82] MobileMe services, and the iTunes Store.

Pixar and Disney

In 1986, Jobs funded the spinout of The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm‘s computer graphics division for the price of $10 million, $5 million of which was given to the company as capital and $5 million of which was paid to Lucasfilm for technology rights.[10]

The first film produced by Pixar with its Disney partnership, Toy Story (1995), with Jobs credited as executive producer,[83] brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released. Over the next 15 years, under Pixar’s creative chief John Lasseter, the company produced box-office hits A Bug’s Life (1998); Toy Story 2 (1999); Monsters, Inc. (2001); Finding Nemo (2003); The Incredibles (2004); Cars (2006); Ratatouille (2007); WALL-E (2008); Up (2009); and Toy Story 3 (2010). Finding NemoThe IncrediblesRatatouilleWALL-EUp and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, an award introduced in 2001.[84]

In 2003 and 2004, as Pixar’s contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership,[85] and in early 2004, Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films after its contract with Disney expired.

In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to mend relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. When the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company‘s largest single shareholder with approximately seven percent of the company’s stock.[86] Jobs’s holdings in Disney far exceeded those of Eisner, who holds 1.7 percent, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held about one percent of the company’s stock and whose criticisms of Eisner – especially that he soured Disney’s relationship with Pixar – accelerated Eisner’s ousting. Upon completion of the merger, Jobs received 7% of Disney shares, and joined the board of directors as the largest individual shareholder.[86][87][88] Upon Jobs’s death his shares in Disney were transferred to the Steven P. Jobs Trust led by Laurene Jobs.[89]

Floyd Norman, of Pixar, described Jobs as a “mature, mellow individual” who never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers.[90] In early June 2014, Pixar cofounder and Walt Disney Animation Studios President Ed Catmull revealed that Jobs once advised him to “just explain it to them until they understand” in disagreements. Catmull released the book Creativity Inc. in 2014, in which he recounts numerous experiences of working with Jobs. Regarding his own manner of dealing with Jobs, Catmull writes:

In all the 26 years with Steve, Steve and I never had one of these loud verbal arguments and it’s not my nature to do that. … but we did disagree fairly frequently about things. … I would say something to him and he would immediately shoot it down because he could think faster than I could. … I would then wait a week … I’d call him up and I give my counter argument to what he had said and he’d immediately shoot it down. So I had to wait another week, and sometimes this went on for months. But in the end one of three things happened. About a third of the time he said, ‘Oh, I get it, you’re right.’ And that was the end of it. And it was another third of the time in which [I’d] say, ‘Actually I think he is right.’ The other third of the time, where we didn’t reach consensus, he just let me do it my way, never said anything more about it.[91]

Chrisann Brennan notes that after Jobs was forced out of Apple, “he apologized many times over for his behavior” towards her and Lisa. She also states that Jobs “said that he never took responsibility when he should have, and that he was sorry.”[18] By this time, Jobs had developed a strong relationship with Lisa and when she was nine, Jobs had her name on her birth certificate changed from “Lisa Brennan” to “Lisa Brennan-Jobs.”[18]In addition, Jobs and Brennan developed a working relationship to co-parent Lisa, a change Brennan credits to the influence of his newly found biological sister, Mona Simpson (who worked to repair the relationship between Lisa and Jobs).[18] Jobs found Mona after first finding his birth mother, Joanne Schieble Simpson, shortly after he left Apple.[12]

Jobs did not contact his birth family during Clara’s (his adoptive mother) lifetime, however. He would later tell his official biographer Walter Isaacson: “I never wanted [Paul and Clara] to feel like I didn’t consider them my parents, because they were totally my parents […] I loved them so much that I never wanted them to know of my search, and I even had reporters keep it quiet when any of them found out.”[12]However, in 1986 when he was 31, Clara was diagnosed with lung cancer. He began to spend a great deal of time with her and learned more details about her background and his adoption, information that motivated him to find his biological mother. Jobs found on his birth certificate the name of the San Francisco doctor to whom Schieble had turned when she was pregnant. Although the doctor did not help Jobs while he was alive, he left a letter for Jobs to be opened upon his death. As he died soon afterwards, Jobs was given the letter which stated that “his mother had been an unmarried graduate student from Wisconsin named Joanne Schieble.”[12]

Jobs only contacted Schieble after Clara died and after he received permission from his father, Paul. In addition, out of respect for Paul, he asked the media not to report on his search.[12] Jobs stated that he was motivated to find his birth mother out of both curiosity and a need “to see if she was okay and to thank her, because I’m glad I didn’t end up as an abortion. She was twenty-three and she went through a lot to have me.”[12] Schieble was emotional during their first meeting (though she wasn’t familiar with the history of Apple or Jobs’s role in it) and told him that she had been pressured into signing the adoption papers. She said that she regretted giving him up and repeatedly apologized to him for it. Jobs and Schieble would develop a friendly relationship throughout the rest of his life and would spend Christmas together.[12] When Jobs died in 2011, Schieble was suffering from dementia and living in a nursing home. She was not told about his death.[92]

During this first visit, Schieble told Jobs that he had a sister, Mona, who was not aware that she had a brother.[12] Schieble then arranged for them to meet in New York where Mona worked. Her first impression of Jobs was that “he was totally straightforward and lovely, just a normal and sweet guy.”[12] Simpson and Jobs then went for a long walk to get to know each other.[12] Jobs later told his biographer that “Mona was not completely thrilled at first to have me in her life and have her mother so emotionally affectionate toward me . . . . As we got to know each other, we became really good friends, and she is my family. I don’t know what I’d do without her. I can’t imagine a better sister. My adopted sister, Patty, and I were never close.”[12]

“I grew up as an only child, with a single mother. Because we were poor and because I knew my father had emigrated from Syria, I imagined he looked like Omar Sharif. I hoped he would be rich and kind and would come into our lives (and our not-yet-furnished apartment) and help us. Later, after I’d met my father, I tried to believe he’d changed his number and left no forwarding address because he was an idealistic revolutionary, plotting a new world for the Arab people. Even as a feminist, my whole life I’d been waiting for a man to love, who could love me. For decades, I’d thought that man would be my father. When I was 25, I met that man, and he was my brother.”

Mona Simpson[93]

Jobs then learned his family history. Six months after he was given up for adoption, Schieble’s father died, she wed Jandali, and they had a daughter, Mona.[12][11] Jandali states that after finishing his PhD he returned to Syria to work and that it was during this period that Schieble left him[11] (they divorced in 1962).[12] He also states that after the divorce he lost contact with Mona for a period of time:

I also bear the responsibility for being away from my daughter when she was four years old, as her mother divorced me when I went to Syria, but we got back in touch after 10 years. We lost touch again when her mother moved and I didn’t know where she was, but since 10 years ago we’ve been in constant contact, and I see her three times a year. I organized a trip for her last year to visit Syria and Lebanon and she went with a relative from Florida.[11]

A few years later, Schieble married an ice skating teacher, George Simpson. Mona Jandali took her stepfather’s last name thus became Mona Simpson. In 1970, after they divorced, Schieble took Mona to Los Angeles and raised her on her own.[12]

Jobs told his official biographer that after meeting Simpson, he wanted to become involved in her ongoing search for their father. When he was found working in Sacramento, they decided that only Simpson would meet him. Jandali and Simpson spoke for several hours at which point he told her that he had left teaching for the restaurant business. He also said that he and Schieble had given another child away for adoption but that “we’ll never see that baby again. That baby’s gone.” (Simpson did not mention that she had met Jobs).[12]Jandali further told Simpson that he once managed a Mediterranean restaurant near San Jose and that “all of the successful technology people used to come there. Even Steve Jobs … oh yeah, he used to come in, and he was a sweet guy and a big tipper.”[12] After hearing about the visit, Jobs recalled that “it was amazing …. I had been to that restaurant a few times, and I remember meeting the owner. He was Syrian. Balding. We shook hands.”[12] However, Jobs did not want to meet Jandali because “I was a wealthy man by then, and I didn’t trust him not to try to blackmail me or go to the press about it … I asked Mona not to tell him about me.”[12] Jandali later discovered his relationship to Jobs through an online blog. He then contacted Simpson and asked “what is this thing about Steve Jobs?” Simpson told him that it was true and later commented, “My father is thoughtful and a beautiful storyteller, but he is very, very passive … He never contacted Steve.”[12] Because Simpson, herself, researched her Syrian roots and began to meet members of the family, she assumed that Jobs would eventually want to meet their father, but he never did.[12] Jobs also never showed an interest in his Syrian heritage or the Middle East.[12] Simpson fictionalized the search for their father in the 1992 novel, The Lost Father.[12]

In 1989, Jobs first met his future wife, Laurene Powell, when he gave a lecture at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, where she was a student. Soon after the event, he stated that Laurene “was right there in the front row in the lecture hall, and I couldn’t take my eyes off of her … kept losing my train of thought, and started feeling a little giddy.”[19] After the lecture, Jobs met up with her in the parking lot and invited her out to dinner. From that point forward, they were together, with a few minor exceptions, for the rest of his life.[19] Powell’s father died when she was very young, and her mother raised her in a middle class New Jersey home similar to the one Jobs grew up in. After she received her B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania, she spent a short period in high finance but found it didn’t interest her, so she decided to pursue her MBA at Stanford instead. In addition, unlike Jobs, she was athletic and followed professional sports. She also brought as much self-sufficiency to the relationship as he did and was more of a private than public person.[19] Jobs proposed on New Year’s Day 1990 with “a fistful of freshly picked wildflowers.”[19] They married on March 18, 1991, in a Buddhist ceremony at the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National Park.[19] Fifty people, including his father, Paul, and his sister, Mona, attended. The ceremony was conducted by Jobs’s guru, Kobun Chino Otogawa. The vegan wedding cake was in the shape of Yosemite’s Half Dome, and the wedding ended with a hike (during which Laurene’s brothers had a snowball fight). Jobs is reported to have said to Mona: “You see, Mona […], Laurene is descended from Joe Namath, and we’re descended from John Muir.”[12]

Jobs and Powell’s first child, Reed, was born September 1991.[73] Jobs’s father, Paul, died a year and a half later, on March 5, 1993. Jobs and Powell had two more children, Erin, born in August 1995, and Eve, born in 1998.[73] The family lived in Palo Alto, California.[94] A journalist who grew up locally remembered him as owning the house with “the scariest [Hallow’een] decorations in Palo Alto…I don’t remember seeing him. I was busy being terrified.”[95]


Return to Apple

Full-length portrait of man about fifty wearing jeans and a black turtleneck shirt, standing in front of a dark curtain with a white Apple logo

Jobs on stage at Macworld Conference & Expo, San Francisco, January 11, 2005

In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $427 million. The deal was finalized in February 1997,[96] bringing Jobs back to the company he had cofounded. Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July 1997. He was formally named interim chief executive in September.[97] In March 1998, to concentrate Apple’s efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a number of projects, such as NewtonCyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, “afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobs’s summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company.”[98] Jobs changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.

With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company’s technology found its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Under Jobs’s guidance, the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the “interim” modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO.[99] Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title “iCEO”.[100]

The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While nurturing innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that “real artists ship [deliver product].”[101]

Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting in 1987, when Jobs first criticized Dell for making “un-innovative beige boxes”.[102] On October 6, 1997, at a Gartner Symposium, when Dell was asked what he would do if he ran the then-troubled Apple Computer company, he said: “I’d shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders.”[103] Then, in 2006, Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple’s market capitalization rose above Dell’s:

Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn’t perfect at predicting the future. Based on today’s stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.[104]

Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the “reality distortion field” and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as “Stevenotes“) at Macworld Expos and at Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.[105]

Jobs was a board member at Gap Inc. from 1999 to 2002.[106]

Two men in their fifties shown full length sitting in red leather chairs smiling at each other

Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifth D: All Things Digital conference (D5) in May 2007

In 2001, Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30. It was alleged that the options had been backdated, and that the exercise price should have been $21.10. It was further alleged that Jobs had thereby incurred taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report, and that Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations,[107]though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006 found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in 2003.[108]

In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple’s poor recycling programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple’s annual meeting in Cupertino in April. A few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read “Steve, don’t be a mini-player—recycle all e-waste.”

In 2006, he further expanded Apple’s recycling programs to any US customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and “environmentally friendly disposal” of their old systems.[109] The success of Apple’s unique products and services provided several years of stable financial returns, propelling Apple to become the world’s most valuable publicly traded company in 2011.[110]

Jobs was perceived as a demanding perfectionist[111][112] who always aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting innovation and style trends. He summed up this self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007, by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky:

There’s an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. “I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.” And we’ve always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very, very beginning. And we always will.[113]

On July 1, 2008, a US$7 billion class action suit was filed against several members of the Apple board of directors for revenue lost because of alleged securities fraud.[114][115]

In a 2011 interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed that he had met with U.S. President Barack Obama, complained about the nation’s shortage of software engineers, and told Obama that he was “headed for a one-term presidency”.[116] Jobs proposed that any foreign student who got an engineering degree at a U.S. university should automatically be offered a green card. After the meeting, Jobs commented, “The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things can’t get done . . . . It infuriates me.”[116]

Health issues

In October 2003, Jobs was diagnosed with cancer.[117] In mid-2004, he announced to his employees that he had a cancerous tumor in his pancreas.[118] The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very poor;[119] Jobs stated that he had a rare, much less aggressive type, known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.[118]

Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors’ recommendations for medical intervention for nine months,[120] instead relying on a pseudo-medicine diet to try natural healing to thwart the disease. According to Harvard researcher Ramzi Amri, his choice of alternative treatment “led to an unnecessarily early death”.[117] Other doctors agree that Jobs’s diet was insufficient to address his disease. Cancer researcher and alternative medicine critic David Gorski, for instance, said, “My best guess was that Jobs probably only modestly decreased his chances of survival, if that.”[121] Barrie R. Cassileth, the chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center‘s integrative medicine department,[122] said, “Jobs’s faith in alternative medicine likely cost him his life…. He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer that is treatable and curable…. He essentially committed suicide.”[123] According to Jobs’s biographer, Walter Isaacson, “for nine months he refused to undergo surgery for his pancreatic cancer – a decision he later regretted as his health declined”.[124] “Instead, he tried a vegan diet, acupuncture, herbal remedies, and other treatments he found online, and even consulted a psychic. He was also influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, cleansings and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July 2004.”[125] He eventually underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or “Whipple procedure”) in July 2004, that appeared to remove the tumor successfully.[126][127] Jobs did not receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy.[118][128] During Jobs’s absence, Tim Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.[118]

In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple’s annual Worldwide Developers Conference. His “thin, almost gaunt” appearance and unusually “listless” delivery,[129][130] together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about the state of his health.[131] In contrast, according to an Ars Technicajournal report, Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) attendees who saw Jobs in person said he “looked fine”.[132] Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that “Steve’s health is robust.”[133]

Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs’s 2008 WWDC keynote address.[134] Apple officials stated that Jobs was victim to a “common bug” and was taking antibiotics,[135] while others surmised his cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure.[128]During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Jobs’s health by insisting that it was a “private matter”. Others said that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs’s hands-on approach to running his company.[136][137] Based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, The New York Times reported, “While his health problems amounted to a good deal more than ‘a common bug’, they weren’t life-threatening and he doesn’t have a recurrence of cancer.”[138]

On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure’s death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,[139] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs’s health.[140] Jobs responded at Apple’s September 2008 Let’s Rock keynote by paraphrasing Mark Twain: “Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated.”[141][142] At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading “110/70”, referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.[143]

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company’s final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs’s health.[144][145] In a statement given on January 5, 2009, on, Jobs said that he had been suffering from a “hormone imbalance” for several months.[146][147]

On January 14, 2009, Jobs wrote in an internal Apple memo that in the previous week he had “learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought”.[148] He announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better focus on his health. Tim Cook, who previously acted as CEO in Jobs’s 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple, with Jobs still involved with “major strategic decisions”.[148]

In 2009, Tim Cook offered a portion of his liver to Jobs, since both share a rare blood type. (The donor liver can regenerate tissue after such an operation.) Jobs yelled, “I’ll never let you do that. I’ll never do that.”[149]

In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis, Tennessee.[150][151][152]Jobs’s prognosis was described as “excellent”.[150]


On January 17, 2011, a year and a half after Jobs returned to work following the liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made “so he could focus on his health.” As it did at the time of his 2009 medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company.[153][154] Despite the leave, Jobs appeared at the iPad 2launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynote introducing iCloud (June 6), and before the Cupertino City Council (June 7).[155]

On August 24, 2011, Jobs announced his resignation as Apple’s CEO, writing to the board, “I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO, I would be the first to let you know. Unfortunately, that day has come.”[156] Jobs became chairman of the board and named Tim Cook as his successor as CEO.[157][158] Jobs continued to work for Apple until the day before his death six weeks later.[159][160][161]


Flags flying at half-staffoutside Apple HQ in Cupertino, on the evening of Steve Jobs’s death

Memorial candles and iPads pay tribute to Steve Jobs outside the Apple Store in Palo Alto, California, shortly after his death.

Jobs died at his Palo Alto, California home around 3 p.m. (PDT) on October 5, 2011, due to complications from a relapse of his previously treated islet-cell neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer,[45][162][163] which resulted in respiratory arrest.[164] He had lost consciousness the day before and died with his wife, children, and sisters at his side.[93] His sister, Mona Simpson, described his death thus: “Steve’s final words, hours earlier, were monosyllables, repeated three times. Before embarking, he’d looked at his sister Patty, then for a long time at his children, then at his life’s partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them. Steve’s final words were: ‘Oh wow. Oh wow. Oh wow.'” He then lost consciousness and died several hours later.[93] A small private funeral was held on October 7, 2011, the details of which were not revealed out of respect for Jobs’s family.[165] At the time of his death, his biological mother, Joanne Schieble Simpson, was living in a nursing home and suffering from dementia. She was not told that he died.[92]

Apple[166] and Pixar each issued announcements of his death.[167] Apple announced on the same day that they had no plans for a public service, but were encouraging “well-wishers” to send their remembrance messages to an email address created to receive such messages.[168] Apple and Microsoft both flew their flags at half-staff throughout their respective headquarters and campuses.[169][170] Bob Iger ordered all Disney properties, including Walt Disney World and Disneyland, to fly their flags at half-staff from October 6 to 12, 2011.[171] For two weeks following his death, Apple displayed on its corporate Web site a simple page that showed Jobs’s name and lifespan next to his grayscale portrait.[172][173][174] On October 19, 2011, Apple employees held a private memorial service for Jobs on the Apple campus in Cupertino. Jobs’s widow, Laurene, was in attendance, as well as Cook, Bill CampbellNorah JonesAl Gore, and Coldplay.[175] Some of Apple’s retail stores closed briefly so employees could attend the memorial. A video of the service was uploaded to Apple’s website.[175]

Governor Jerry Brown of California declared Sunday, October 16, 2011, to be “Steve Jobs Day.”[176] On that day, an invitation-only memorial was held at Stanford University. Those in attendance included Apple and other tech company executives, members of the media, celebrities, close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobs’s family. BonoYo Yo Ma, and Joan Baez performed at the service, which lasted longer than an hour. The service was highly secured, with guards at all of the university’s gates, and a helicopter flying overhead from an area news station.[177][178] Each attendee was given a small brown box as a “farewell gift” from Jobs. The box contained a copy of the Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda.[179]

Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak,[180] former owner of what would become PixarGeorge Lucas,[181] former rival, Microsoft founder Bill Gates,[182] and President Barack Obama[183] all offered statements in response to his death.

Jobs is buried in an unmarked grave at Alta Mesa Memorial Park, the only nonsectarian cemetery in Palo Alto.[184][185]

Portrayals and coverage in books, film, and theater

Steve Jobs is the subject of a number of books and films.

Innovations and designs

Jobs’s design aesthetic was influenced by the modernist architectural style of Joseph Eichler, by the industrial designs of Braun’s Dieter Rams, and by Buddhism. In India, he experienced Buddhism while on his seven-month spiritual journey,[186] and his sense of intuition was influenced by the spiritual people with whom he studied.[186]

According to Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak “Steve didn’t ever code. He wasn’t an engineer and he didn’t do any original design…”[187][188] Daniel Kottke, one of Apple’s earliest employees and a college friend of Jobs’s, stated that “Between Woz and Jobs, Woz was the innovator, the inventor. Steve Jobs was the marketing person.”[189]

He is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 346 United States patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages. Jobs’s contributions to most of his patents were to “the look and feel of the product”. His industrial design chief Jonathan Ive had his name along with him for 200 of the patents.[190] Most of these are design patents (specific product designs; for example, Jobs listed as primary inventor in patents for both original and lamp-style iMacs, as well as PowerBook G4 Titanium) as opposed to utility patents (inventions).[191][192] He has 43 issued US patents on inventions.[191] The patent on the Mac OS X Dock user interface with “magnification” feature was issued the day before he died.[193] Although Jobs had little involvement in the engineering and technical side of the original Apple computers,[188] Jobs later used his CEO position to directly involve himself with product design.[194]

Even while terminally ill in the hospital, Jobs sketched new devices that would hold the iPad in a hospital bed.[195] He also despised the oxygen monitor on his finger and suggested ways to revise the design for simplicity.[196]

Since his death, the former Apple CEO has won 141 patents, more than most inventors win during their lifetimes. Currently, Jobs holds over 450 patents.[197]

Apple II

The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products,[50] designed primarily by Steve Wozniak (Jobs oversaw the development of the Apple II’s unusual case[12] and Rod Holt developed the unique power supply[51]). It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer.

Apple Lisa

The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in a machine aimed at individual business users. Development of the Lisa began in 1978.[198] The Lisa sold poorly, with only 100,000 units sold.[199]

In 1982, after Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project,[200] he joined the Macintosh project. The Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems. The final revision, the Lisa 2/10, was modified and sold as the Macintosh XL.[201]


Once he joined the original Macintosh team, Jobs took over the project after Wozniak had experienced a traumatic airplane accident and temporarily left the company.[77] Jobs introduced the Macintosh computer on January 24, 1984. This was the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse.[202] This first model was later renamed to “Macintosh 128k” for uniqueness amongst a populous family of subsequently updated models which are also based on Apple’s same proprietary architecture. Since 1998, Apple has largely phased out the Macintosh name in favor of “Mac”, though the product family has been nicknamed “Mac” or “the Mac” since the development of the first model. The Macintosh was introduced by a US$1.5 million Ridley Scott television commercial, “1984“.[203] It most notably aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and some people consider the ad a “watershed event”[204] and a “masterpiece.”[205] Regis McKenna called the ad “more successful than the Mac itself.”[206] “1984” used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by a Picasso-style picture of the computer on her white tank top) as a means of saving humanity from the “conformity” of IBM’s attempts to dominate the computer industry. The ad alludes to George Orwell‘s novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised “Big Brother.”[207][208]

The Macintosh, however, was expensive, which hindered its ability to be competitive in a market already dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.[209] Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade.

NeXT Computer

After Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985, he started a company that built workstation computers. The NeXT Computer was introduced in 1988 at a lavish launch eventTim Berners-Lee created the world’s first web browser (WorldWideWeb) using the NeXT Computer. The NeXT Computer was the basis for today’s macOS (formerly OS X) and iOS (formerly iPhone OS).[210][211]


Apple iMac was introduced in 1998 and its innovative design was directly the result of Jobs’s return to Apple. Apple boasted “the back of our computer looks better than the front of anyone else’s.”[212] Described as “cartoonlike”, the first iMac, clad in Bondi Blue plastic, was unlike any personal computer that came before. In 1999, Apple introduced the Graphite gray Apple iMac and since has varied the shape, colour and size considerably while maintaining the all-in-one design. Design ideas were intended to create a connection with the user such as the handle and a breathing light effect when the computer went to sleep.[213] The Apple iMac sold for $1,299 at that time. The iMac also featured some technical innovations, such as having USB ports as the only device inputs. This latter change resulted, through the iMac’s success, in the interface being popularised among third party peripheral makers – as evidenced by the fact that many early USB peripherals were made of translucent plastic (to match the iMac design).[214]


iTunes is a media player, media library, online radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It is used to play, download, and organize digital audio and video (as well as other types of media available on the iTunes Store) on personal computers running the macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. The iTunes Store is also available on the iPod TouchiPhone, and iPad.

Through the iTunes Store, users can purchase and download music, music videos, television shows, audiobookspodcasts, movies, and movie rentals in some countries, and ringtones, available on the iPhone and iPod Touch (fourth generation onward). Application softwarefor the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch can be downloaded from the App Store.


The first generation of iPod was released October 23, 2001. The major innovation of the iPod was its small size achieved by using a 1.8″ hard drive compared to the 2.5″ drives common to players at that time. The capacity of the first generation iPod ranged from 5 GB to 10 GB.[215] The iPod sold for US$399 and more than 100,000 iPods were sold before the end of 2001. The introduction of the iPod resulted in Apple becoming a major player in the music industry.[216] Also, the iPod’s success prepared the way for the iTunes music store and the iPhone.[217] After the 1st generation of iPod, Apple released the hard drive-based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the video-capable iPod Nano, and the screenless iPod Shuffle in the following years.[216]


Apple began work on the first iPhone in 2005 and the first iPhone was released on June 29, 2007. The iPhone created such a sensation that a survey indicated six out of ten Americans were aware of its release. Time Magazine declared it “Invention of the Year” for 2007.[218]The Apple iPhone is a small device with multimedia capabilities and functions as a quad-band touch screen smartphone.[219] A year later, the iPhone 3G was released in July 2008 with three key features: support for GPS, 3G data and tri-band UMTS/HSDPA. In June 2009, the iPhone 3GS, whose improvements included voice control, a better camera, and a faster processor, was introduced by Phil Schiller.[220]The iPhone 4 is thinner than previous models, has a five megapixel camera capable of recording video in 720p HD, and adds a secondary front-facing camera for video calls.[221] A major feature of the iPhone 4S, introduced in October 2011, was Siri, a virtual assistant capable of voice recognition.[218]


Jobs introducing the iPad, San Francisco, January 27, 2010

iPad is an iOS-based line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models, the iPad (2017)iPad Pro, and iPad Mini 4, were released on September 9, 2015 and March 24, 2017. The user interface is built around the device’s multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPad includes built-in Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity on select models. As of April 2015, there have been over 250 million iPads sold.[222]

Honors and awards

Statue of Jobs at Graphisoft Park, Budapest.[223]

marvel the cinematic universe

what is marvel universe?????????????

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic bookspublished by Marvel Comics. The franchise has expanded to include comic books, short films, television series, and digital series. The shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. Phil Coulson, portrayed by Clark Gregg, is an original character to the MCU and the only character to appear across all the different media of the MCU.


By 2005, Marvel Entertainment began planning to independently produce its own films and distribute them through Paramount Pictures. Previously, Marvel had co-produced several superhero films with Columbia PicturesNew Line Cinema and others, including a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox. Marvel made relatively little profit from its licensing deals with other studios and wanted to get more money out of its films while maintaining artistic control of the projects and distribution. Avi Arad, head of Marvel’s film division, was pleased with Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man filmsat Sony, but was less pleased about others. As a result, they decided to form Marvel Studios, Hollywood’s first major independent movie studio since DreamWorks

Arad’s second-in-command Kevin Feige, realized that unlike Spider-Man and the X-Men, whose film rights were licensed to Sony and Fox, respectively, Marvel still owned the rights to the core members of the Avengers. Feige, a self-professed “fanboy”, envisioned creating a shared universe just as creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby had done with their comic books in the early 1960s.To raise capital, the studio secured funding from a seven-year, $525 million revolving credit facility with Merrill Lynch.Marvel’s plan was to release individual films for their main characters and then merge them together in a crossover film.Arad, who doubted the strategy yet insisted that it was his reputation that helped secure the initial financing, resigned the following year.

business practices

Marvel Studios developed specific business practices to create its shared universe, including choosing filmmakers that were considered “out-of-left-field”, given their previous work. Feige remarked, “You don’t have to have directed a big, giant visual-effects movie to do a big, giant visual-effects movie for us. You just have to have done something singularly sort of awesome,” adding “It’s worked out well for us when we’ve taken people [such as Jon FavreauJoss WhedonKenneth Branagh, and the Russo brothers,] that have done very, very good things. Very rarely are one of those good things a big giant blockbuster superhero movie.”When hiring directors, the studio usually has “a kernel of an idea of what we want”, which is presented to potential directors over the course of several meetings to discuss and further expand. “And if over the course of three or four or five meetings they make it way better than what we initially were spewing to them, they usually get the job”, according to Feige. Later expanding on this process, Feige explained that before talking to any directors on a film, Marvel Studios often puts together a “lookbook” of influences from the comics and art by Marvel’s visual development department, to create a visual template for the film. These are put together at company retreats, which the studio holds every “18 months or so” to plan out and develop the phases of the MCU. These lookbooks are not always shown to directors, though, with Marvel sometimes preferring to let the director offer their own ideas first.

featured movies

Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Status
Phase One: Avengers Assembled[125]
Iron Man May 2, 2008 Jon Favreau Mark Fergus & Hawk Ostby and Art Marcum & Matt Holloway Avi Aradand KevinFeige Released
The Incredible Hulk June 13, 2008 Louis Leterrier Zak Penn Avi Arad, Gale Anne Hurd
and Kevin Feige
Iron Man 2 May 7, 2010 Jon Favreau Justin Theroux Kevin Feige
Thor May 6, 2011 Kenneth Branagh Ashley Edward MillerZack Stentz and Don Payne
Captain America: The First Avenger July 22, 2011 Joe Johnston Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely
Marvel’s The Avengers May 4, 2012 Joss Whedon
Phase Two
Iron Man 3 May 3, 2013 Drew Pearce anShane Black Kevin Feige Released
Thor: The Dark World November 8, 2013 Alan Taylor Christopher Yost and Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely
Captain America: The Winter Soldier April 4, 2014 Anthony and Joe Russo Christopher Markus & StephenMcFeely
Guardians of the Galaxy August 1, 2014 James Gunn James Gunn and Nicole Perlman
Avengers: Age of Ultron May 1, 2015 Joss Whedon
Ant-Man July 17, 2015 Peyton Reed[ Edgar Wright & Joe Cornish and Adam McKay & Paul Rudd
Phase Three[19][149][150]
Captain America: Civil War May 6, 2016 Anthony and Joe Russo Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely Kevin Feige Released
Doctor Strange November 4, 2016 Scott Derrickson Jon Spaihts and Scott Derrickson & C. Robert Cargill
Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 May 5, 2017 James Gunn
Spider-Man: Homecoming July 7, 2017 Jon Watts Jonathan GoldsteinJohn Francis Daley and
Jon Watts & Christopher Ford and
Chris McKenna & Erik Sommers
Kevin Feige and Amy Pascal
Thor: Ragnarok November 3, 2017 Taika Waititi Eric Pearson and Craig Kyle & Christopher Yost Kevin Feige
Black Panther February 16, 2018 Ryan Coogler Ryan Coogler & Joe Robert Cole Post-production
Avengers: Infinity War May 4, 2018 Anthony and Joe Russo Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely
Ant-Man and the Wasp July 6, 2018 Peyton Reed Chris McKenna & Erik Sommers and
Andrew Barrer & Gabriel Ferrari and Paul Rudd
Captain Marvel March 8, 2019 Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck Geneva Robertson-Dwor Pre-production
Untitled Avengers film May 3, 2019 Anthony and Joe Russo[161] Christopher Markus & Stephen McFeely Filming
Post-Phase Three
Untitled Spider-Man: Homecomingsequel July 5, 2019 Jon Watts TBA Kevin Feige and Amy Pascal Pre-production[169]
Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3 2020 James Gunn Kevin Feige In devolopment

flying car







what is a flying car



flying car is a type of personal air vehicle that provides door-to-door transportation by both ground and air. The term “flying car” is often used to include roadable aircraft and hovercars.

Many prototypes have been built since the first years of the twentieth century, but no flying car has yet reached production status.

Their appearance is often predicted by futurologists, with their failure ever to reach production leading to the catchphrase, “Where’s my flying car?”

Flying cars are also a popular theme in fantasy and science fictionstories.