Egg

Some eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birdsreptilesamphibiansmammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.[1] Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. The most commonly consumed eggs are chicken eggs. Other poultry eggs including those of duck and quail also are eaten. Fish eggs are called roe and caviar.

Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline,[2][3]and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid.[2] Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from cholesterol content, salmonella contamination, and allergy to egg proteins.

Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are kept widely throughout the world and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens.[4] There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens.

History

Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated. The chicken probably was domesticated for its eggs (from jungle fowl native to tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent) before 7500 BCEChickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs.[5]In Thebes, Egypt, the tomb of Haremhab, dating to approximately 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings.[6] In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods and meals often started with an egg course.[6] The Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there.[7] In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lentbecause of their richness.[7] The word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.[7]

Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the seventeenth century; this may have been the origin of lemon curd.[8]

The dried egg industry developed in the nineteenth century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry.[9] In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and egg white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process.[9] The production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.[9]

In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper.[10]

Varieties

Quail eggs (upper left), chicken egg (lower left), and ostrich egg (right).

Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry.[7]

The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chickenduck, and goose eggs. Smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are used occasionally as a gourmet ingredient in Western countries. Eggs are a common everyday food in many parts of Asia, such as China and Thailand, with Asian production providing 59 percent of the world total in 2013.[11]

The largest bird eggs, from ostriches, tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England,[12] as well as in some Scandinavian countries, particularly in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs often are seen in marketplaces, especially in the spring of each year.[13] Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are edible, but less widely available,[12] sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild bird eggs are protected by laws which prohibit the collecting or selling of them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year.[12]

Production

In 2013, world production of chicken eggs was 68.3 million tonnes. The largest four producers were China at 24.8 million of this total, the United States at 5.6 million, India at 3.8 million, and Japan at 2.5 million.[14] A typical large egg plant ships a million dozen eggs a week.[15]

During production eggs usually are candled to check their quality. The size of its air cell is determined and the examination also reveals whether the egg was fertilized and thereby contains an embryo. Depending on local regulations they may be washed before being placed in egg boxes. Washing may shorten their length of freshness.

Anatomy and characteristics

A raw chicken egg within its membrane, with the shell removed by soaking in vinegar.

Schematic of a chicken egg:
1. Eggshell
2. Outer membrane
3. Inner membrane
4. Chalaza
5. Exterior albumen
6. Middle albumen
7. Vitelline membrane
8. Nucleus of pander
9. Germinal disc (nucleus)
10. Yellow yolk
11. White yolk
12. Internal albumen
13. Chalaza
14. Air cell
15. Cuticula

The shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other and has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis.

An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Thin membranes exist inside the shell. The egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (from the Greek word χάλαζα, meaning ‘hailstone’ or ‘hard lump’).

Air cell

The larger end of the egg contains an air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. As the size of the air cell increases and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size due to air being drawn through pores in the shell as water is lost, the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. A very old egg will float in the water and should not be eaten.[16]

Shell

Eggshell color is caused by pigment deposition during egg formation in the oviduct and may vary according to species and breed, from the more common white or brown to pink or speckled blue-green. Generally, chicken breeds with white ear lobes lay white eggs, whereas chickens with red ear lobes lay brown eggs.[17] Although there is no significant link between shell color and nutritional value, often there is a cultural preference for one color over another (see ‘Color of eggshell’, below). Brown eggs have significantly higher incidence of blood spots due to candling being less effective.[18]

Membrane

The eggshell membrane is a clear film lining the eggshell, visible when one peels a boiled egg. Primarily, it composed of fibrous proteins such as collagentype I.[19] These membranes may be used commercially as a dietary supplement.

White

“White” is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg. Clear initially, upon cooking it turns white. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen oviduct during the passage of the egg.[20] It forms around both fertilizedand unfertilized yolks. The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition during the growth of the embryo.

Egg white consists primarily of approximately 90 percent water into which is dissolved 10 percent proteins (including albuminsmucoproteins, and globulins). Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no and the carbohydrate content is less than one percent. Egg white has many uses in food and many other applications, including the preparation of vaccines, such as those for influenza.[21]

Yolk

The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages, it absorbs water from the albumen, which increases its size and causes it to stretch and weaken the vitelline membrane (the clear casing enclosing the yolk). The resulting effect is a flattened and enlarged yolk shape.

Yolk color is dependent on the diet of the hen. If the diet contains yellow or orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they are deposited in the yolk, coloring it. Lutein is the most abundant pigment in egg yolk.[22] A diet without such colorful foods may result in an almost colorless yolk. Yolk color is, for example, enhanced if the diet includes foods such as yellow corn and marigold petals.[23] In the US, the use of artificial color additives is forbidden.[23]

Abnormalities

See Double-yolk eggs and Yolkless eggs

Shell-less or thin-shelled eggs may be caused by egg drop syndrome.

Culinary properties

Types of dishes

A fried chicken egg, “sunny side up”.

Soft-boiled quail eggs with potato galettes.

Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory, including many baked goods. Some of the most common preparation methods include scrambledfriedpoachedhard-boiled, soft-boiled, omelettes, and pickled. They also may be eaten raw, although this is not recommended for people who may be especially susceptible to salmonellosis, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs is only 51 percent bioavailable, whereas that of a cooked egg is nearer 91 percent bio-available, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs.[24]

As a cooking ingredient, egg yolks are an important emulsifier in the kitchen, and are also used as a thickener, as in custards.

The albumen, or egg white, contains protein, but little or no , and may be used in cooking separately from the yolk. The proteins in egg white allow it to form foams and aerated dishes. Egg whites may be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency, and often are used in desserts such as meringues and mousse.

Ground egg shells sometimes are used as a food additive to deliver calcium.[25]Every part of an egg is edible,[citation needed] although the eggshell is generally discarded. Some recipes call for immature or unlaid eggs, which are harvested after the hen is slaughtered or cooked, while still inside the chicken.[26]

Cooking

Instructional video on baking with eggs and cakes.

Half boiled egg dish.

Eggs contain multiple proteins that gel at different temperatures within the yolk and the white, and the temperature determines the gelling time. Egg yolk becomes a gel, or solidifies, between 65 and 70 °C (149 and 158 °F). Egg white gels at different temperatures: 60 to 73 °C (140 to 163 °F). The white contains exterior albumen which sets at the highest temperature.[27] In practice, in many cooking processes the white gels first because it is exposed to higher temperatures for longer.[28][29]

Salmonella is killed instantly at 71 °C (160 °F), but also is killed from 54.5 °C (130.1 °F), if held at that temperature for sufficiently long time periods.[28] To avoid the issue of salmonella, eggs may be pasteurized in-shell at 57 °C (135 °F) for an hour and 15 minutes. Although the white then is slightly milkier, the eggs may be used in normal ways. Whipping for meringue takes significantly longer, but the final volume is virtually the same.[30]

If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk due to changes to the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It also may occur with an abundance of iron in the cooking water.[citation needed] Overcooking harms the quality of the protein.[citation needed] Chilling an overcooked egg for a few minutes in cold water until it is completely cooled may prevent the greenish ring from forming on the surface of the yolk.

Peeling a cooked egg is easiest when the egg was put into boiling water as opposed to slowly heating the egg from a start in cold water.[31]

Flavor variations

A batch of tea eggs with shell intact soaking in a brew of spices and tea.

Although the age of the egg and the conditions of its storage have a greater influence, the bird’s diet affects the flavor of the egg.[8] For example, when a brown-egg chicken breed eats rapeseed (canola) or soy meals, its intestinal microbes metabolize them into fishy-smelling triethylamine, which ends up in the egg.[8] The unpredictable diet of free-range hens will produce likewise, unpredictable egg flavors.[8] Duck eggs tend to have a flavor distinct from, but still resembling, chicken eggs.

Eggs may be soaked in mixtures to absorb flavor. Tea eggs are steeped in a brew from a mixture of various spices, soy sauce, and black tea leaves to give flavor.

Storage

Careful storage of edible eggs is extremely important, as an improperly handled egg may contain elevated levels of Salmonella bacteria that may cause severe food poisoning. In the US, eggs are washed. This cleans the shell, but erodes its cuticle.[32][33] The USDA thus recommends refrigerating eggs to prevent the growth of Salmonella.[23]

Refrigeration also preserves the taste and texture, however, intact eggs (unwashed and unbroken) may be left unrefrigerated for several months without spoiling.[34] In Europe, eggs are not usually washed, and the shells are dirtier, however the cuticle is undamaged, and they do not require refrigeration.[33] In the UK in particular, hens are immunized against salmonella and generally, their eggs are safe for 21 days.[33]

Preservation

Salted duck egg.

The simplest method to preserve an egg is to treat it with salt. Salt draws water out of bacteria and molds, which prevents their growth.[35] The Chinese salted duck egg is made by immersing duck eggs in brine, or coating them individually with a paste of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after approximately a month, having reached osmotic equilibrium.[35] Their yolks take on an orange-red color and solidify, but the white remains somewhat liquid. These often are boiled before consumption and are served with rice congee.

Pickled egg, colored with beetroot juice.

Another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices, such as ginger or allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red color to the eggs.[36] If the eggs are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colors may be seen when the eggs are sliced.[36] If marinated for several days or more, the red color will reach the yolk.[36] If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, the vinegar will dissolve much of the shell’s calcium carbonate and the egg, making it acidic enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and molds.[35] Pickled eggs made this way generally keep for a year or more without refrigeration.[35]

century egg or hundred-year-old egg is preserved by coating an egg in a mixture of claywood ash, salt, lime, and rice straw for several weeks to several months, depending on the method of processing. After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odor of sulfur and ammonia, while the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with a comparatively mild, distinct flavor. The transforming agent in a century egg is its alkaline material, which gradually raises the pH of the egg from approximately 9 to 12 or more.[37] This chemical process breaks down some of the complex, flavorless proteins and fats of the yolk into simpler, flavorful ones, which in some way may be thought of as an “inorganic” version of fermentation.

Cooking substitutes

For those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato starch flourTofu also acts as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce may be used, as well as arrowroot and banana. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, often is used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin. Leguminous broths, such as chickpea brine or green pea canning liquid, also known as aquafaba, can replace egg whites in desserts such as meringues and mousses.

Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals, as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners, such as xanthan gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition and several culinary properties of real eggs, making possible foods such as Hollandaise saucecustardmayonnaise, and most baked goods with these substitutes.

Nutritional value

Chicken egg
whole, hard-boiled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 647 kJ (155 kcal)
1.12 g
10.6 g
12.6 g
Tryptophan 0.153 g
Threonine 0.604 g
Isoleucine 0.686 g
Leucine 1.075 g
Lysine 0.904 g
Methionine 0.392 g
Cystine 0.292 g
Phenylalanine 0.668 g
Tyrosine 0.513 g
Valine 0.767 g
Arginine 0.755 g
Histidine 0.298 g
Alanine 0.700 g
Aspartic acid 1.264 g
Glutamic acid 1.644 g
Glycine 0.423 g
Proline 0.501 g
Serine 0.936 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
19%

149 μg

Thiamine (B1)
6%

0.066 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
42%

0.5 mg

Niacin (B3)
0%

0.064 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
28%

1.4 mg

Vitamin B6
9%

0.121 mg

Folate (B9)
11%

44 μg

Vitamin B12
46%

1.11 μg

Choline
60%

294 mg

Vitamin D
15%

87 IU

Vitamin E
7%

1.03 mg

Vitamin K
0%

0.3 μg

Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
5%

50 mg

Iron
9%

1.2 mg

Magnesium
3%

10 mg

Phosphorus
25%

172 mg

Potassium
3%

126 mg

Sodium
8%

124 mg

Zinc
11%

1.0 mg

Other constituents Quantity
Water 75 g
Cholesterol 373 mg

How are ice cream made

I eating ice cream

Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice[1]) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It is typically sweetened with sugar or sugar substitutes. Typically, flavourings and colourings are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (< 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases.

Ice cream
Ice Cream dessert 02.jpg

cocktail glass of ice cream, with whipped cream and a wafer
Course Dessert
Serving temperature Frozen
Main ingredients Milk or cream, sugar
Variations Gelatosorbetfrozen custard

The meaning of the phrase “ice cream” varies from one country to another. Phrases such as “frozen custard“, “frozen yogurt“, “sorbet“, “gelato“, and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the United States, the phrase “ice cream” applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients, notably the amount of cream.[2] Products that do not meet the criteria to be called ice cream are labelled “frozen dairy dessert” instead.[3] In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat’s or sheep’s milk, or milk substitutes (e.g., soy milk or tofu), are available for those who are lactose intolerantallergic to dairy protein, or vegan.

Ice cream may be served in dishes, for eating with a spoon, or in cones, which are licked. Ice cream may be served with other desserts, such as apple pie. Ice cream is used to prepare other desserts, including ice cream floatssundaesmilkshakesice cream cakes and even baked items, such as Baked Alaska.

In many of those flavours, spicy ice creams are also available in some specific countries.

History

Persia

yakhchal, an ancient type of ice house, in Yazd, Iran

History of ice creams probably begun around 500 BC in the Achaemenid Empire with ice combined with flavors to produce summertime treats.[4][5] In 400 BC, the Persians invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli, which was served to royalty during summers.[6] The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavours.

Ancient Greece

During the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks ate snow mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens. The father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, encouraged his Ancient Greek patients to eat ice “as it livens the life-juices and increases the well-being.”

China

A frozen mixture of milk and rice was used in China around 200 BC.[7] “They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the same way as salt raises the boiling point of water, it lowers the freezing point to below zero.”[8][9]

Rome

The Roman Emperor Nero (37–68 AD) had ice brought from the mountains and combined it with fruit toppings to create chilled delicacies.[10]

India

In the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi, where it was used in fruit sorbets.[11] Kulfi is a popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian subcontinent and is often described as “traditional Indian ice cream.” It originated in the sixteenth century in the Mughal Empire.

Europe

Italian duchess Catherine de’ Medici, credited with introducing ice cream into Europe in the 16th century

When Italian duchess Catherine de’ Medici married the Duke of Orléans (Henry II of France) in 1533, she is said to have brought with her to France some Italian chefs who had recipes for flavoured ices or sorbets.[12] One hundred years later, Charles I of England was, it was reported, so impressed by the “frozen snow” that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative.[13] There is no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century.

The first recipe in French for flavoured ices appears in 1674, in Nicholas Lemery’s Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature.[12] Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini’s Lo Scalco alla Moderna (The Modern Steward).[12] Recipes for flavoured ices begin to appear in François Massialot’s Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures, les Liqueurs, et les Fruits, starting with the 1692 edition. Massialot’s recipes result in a coarse, pebbly texture. Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of sugar and snow.[12]

Ice cream recipes first appeared in England in the 18th century. The recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales’s Receipts in London in 1718.[14][15]

Noblewomen eating ice cream on French caricature, 1801

To ice cream.

Take Tin Ice-Pots, fill them with any Sort of Cream you like, either plain or sweeten’d, or Fruit in it; shut your Pots very close; to six Pots you must allow eighteen or twenty Pound of Ice, breaking the Ice very small; there will be some great Pieces, which lay at the Bottom and Top: You must have a Pail, and lay some Straw at the Bottom; then lay in your Ice, and put in amongst it a Pound of Bay-Salt; set in your Pots of Cream, and lay Ice and Salt between every , that they may not touch; but the Ice must lie round them on every Side; lay a good deal of Ice on the Top, cover the Pail with Straw, set it in a Cellar where no Sun or Light comes, it will be froze in four Hours, but it may stand longer; then take it out just as you use it; hold it in your Hand and it will slip out. When you wou’d freeze any Sort of Fruit, either Cherries, Raspberries, Currants, or Strawberries, fill your Tin-Pots with the Fruit, but as hollow as you can; put to them Lemmonade, made with Spring-Water and Lemmon-Juice sweeten’d; put enough in the Pots to make the Fruit hang together, and put them in Ice as you do Cream.

North America

Title page to The Art of Cookery by Hannah Glasse
US presidents with ice cream
John F. Kennedy
George W. Bush
Barak Obama

An early reference to ice cream given by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1744, reprinted in a magazine in 1877. “1744 in Pennsylvania Mag. Hist. & Biogr. (1877) I. 126 Among the rarities..was some fine ice cream, which, with the strawberries and milk, eat most deliciously.”[16]

The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glassefeatures a recipe for ice cream. OED gives her recipe: “H. GLASSE Art of Cookery (ed. 4) 333 (heading) To make Ice Cream..set it [sc. the cream] into the larger Bason. Fill it with Ice, and a Handful of Salt.”[16] The year 1768 saw the publication of L’Art de Bien Faire les Glaces d’Office by M. Emy, a cookbook devoted entirely to recipes for flavoured ices and ice cream.[12]

Quaker colonists introduced ice cream to the United States, bringing their ice cream recipes with them. Confectioners sold ice cream at their shops in New York and other cities during the colonial era. Ben FranklinGeorge Washington, and Thomas Jefferson were known to have regularly eaten and served ice cream. Records, kept by a merchant from Catham street, New York, show George Washington spending approximately $200 on ice cream in the summer of 1790. The same records show president Thomas Jefferson having an 18 step recipe for ice cream.[17] First Lady Dolley Madison, wife of U.S. President James Madison, served ice cream at her husband’s Inaugural Ball in 1813.[18]

Small-scale hand-cranked ice cream freezers were invented in England by Agnes Marshall and in America by Nancy Johnson in the 1840s.[19]

The most popular flavours of ice cream in North America (based on consumer surveys) are vanilla and chocolate.[20]

Expansion in popularity

In the Mediterranean, ice cream appears to have been accessible to ordinary people by the mid-eighteenth century.[21] Ice cream became popular and inexpensive in England in the mid-nineteenth century, when Swiss émigré Carlo Gatti set up the first stand outside Charing Cross station in 1851. He sold scoops in shells for one penny. Prior to this, ice cream was an expensive treat confined to those with access to an ice house.[22] Gatti built an ‘ice well’ to store ice that he cut from Regent’s Canal under a contract with the Regent’s Canal Company. By 1860, he expanded the business and began importing ice on a large scale from Norway.

Agnes Marshall, regarded as the “queen of ices” in England, did much to popularize ice cream recipes and make its consumption into a fashionable middle-class pursuit. She wrote four books: Ices Plain and Fancy: The Book of Ices (1885), Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Book of Cookery (1888), Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Larger Cookery Book of Extra Recipes (1891) and Fancy Ices (1894) and gave public lectures on cooking. She even suggested using liquid nitrogen to make ice cream.

Ice cream soda was invented in the 1870s, adding to ice cream’s popularity. The invention of this cold treat is attributed to American Robert Green in 1874, although there is no conclusive evidence to prove his claim. The ice cream sundae originated in the late 19th century. Several men claimed to have created the first sundae, but there is no conclusive evidence to support any of their stories. Some sources say that the sundae was invented to circumvent blue laws, which forbade serving sodas on Sunday. Towns claiming to be the birthplace of the sundae include BuffaloTwo RiversIthaca, and Evanston. Both the ice cream cone and banana split became popular in the early 20th century.

Agnes Marshall, “queen of ices”, instrumental in making ice-cream fashionable

The first mention of the cone being used as an edible receptacle for the ice cream is in Mrs. A.B. Marshall‘s Book of Cookery of 1888. Her recipe for “Cornet with Cream” said that “the cornets were made with almonds and baked in the oven, not pressed between irons”.[23][24][25][26] The ice cream cone was popularized in the USA at the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis, MO.

The history of ice cream in the 20th century is one of great change and increases in availability and popularity. In the United States in the early 20th century, the ice cream soda was a popular treat at the soda shop, the soda fountain, and the ice cream parlor. During the American Prohibition, the soda fountain to some extent replaced the outlawed alcohol establishments such as bars and saloons.

Children in Chicago surround an Ice Cream vendor in 1909

Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common. There was an explosion of ice cream stores and of flavours and types. Vendors often competed on the basis of variety. Howard Johnson’s restaurants advertised “a world of 28 flavors”. Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavours (“one for every day of the month”) the cornerstone of its marketing strategy. The company now boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties.

One important development in the 20th century was the introduction of soft ice cream, which has more air mixed in thereby reducing costs. It made possible the soft ice cream machine in which a cone is filled beneath a spigot on order. In the United States, Dairy QueenCarvel, and Tastee-Freez pioneered in establishing chains of soft-serve ice cream outlets while Baskin-Robbinsbecame worldwide chain later.

Technological innovations such as these have introduced various food additives into ice cream, the notable one being the stabilizing agent gluten,to which some people have an intolerance. Recent awareness of this issue has prompted a number of manufacturers to start producing gluten-free ice cream.[29]

The 1980s saw thicker ice creams being sold as “premium” and “super-premium” varieties under brands such as Ben & Jerry’sChocolate Shoppe Ice Cream Company and Häagen-Dazs.

World war 1

World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as the “war to end all wars“,[7] it led to the mobilization of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history.[8][9] An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civiliansdied as a direct result of the war, while it is also considered a contributory factor in a number of genocides and the 1918 influenza epidemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide.[10] Military losses were exacerbated by new technological and industrial developments and the tactical stalemate caused by grueling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923, in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of the Second World War about twenty years later.[11]

World War I
WWImontage.jpg
Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the SommeMark V tanks cross the Hindenburg LineHMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
Date 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918
(4 years, 3 months and 2 weeks)

Location Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China, Indian Ocean, and off the coast of South and North America
Result Allied Powers victory

Territorial
changes
Belligerents
Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Commanders and leaders
Allied Powers leaders:

Central Powers leaders:

Strength
  • Russian Empire 12,000,000
  • British Empire 8,841,541[1][2]
  • French Third Republic 8,660,000[3]
  • Kingdom of Italy 5,615,140
  • United States 4,743,826
  • Kingdom of Romania 1,234,000
  • Empire of Japan 800,000
  • Kingdom of Serbia 707,343
  • Belgium 380,000
  • Kingdom of Greece 250,000
  • First Portuguese Republic 80,000
  • Kingdom of Montenegro 50,000

Total: 42,959,850[4]

  • German Empire 13,250,000
  • Austria-Hungary 7,800,000
  • Ottoman Empire 2,998,321
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000

Total: 25,248,321[4]

Casualties and losses
  • Military dead: 5,525,000
  • Military wounded: 12,831,500
  • Total: 18,356,500 KIA, WIA and MIA
  • Civilian dead: 4,000,000

further details.


French Third Republic 1,397,800 killed[5]
British Empire 1,114,914 killed[5]
Kingdom of Italy 651,000 killed[5]
Russian Empire 1,811,000 killed[5]
Kingdom of Romania 250,000[5]-335,000 killed[6]
Empire of Japan 415 killed[5]
Kingdom of Serbia 275,000 killed[5]
Belgium 58,637[5]-87,500 killed[6]
United States 116,708 killed[5]
Kingdom of Greece 26,000 killed[5]
First Portuguese Republic 7,222 killed[5]

Kingdom of Montenegro 3,000 killed[5]

  • Military dead: 4,386,000
  • Military wounded: 8,388,000
  • Total: 12,774,000 KIA, WIA and MIA
  • Civilian dead: 3,700,000

further details.


German Empire 2,050,897 killed[5]
Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 killed[6]
Ottoman Empire 771,844 killed[5]
Kingdom of Bulgaria 87,500 killed[5]

By 1914, the European powers were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente, consisting of FranceRussia and Britain and the Triple Alliance of GermanyAustria-Hungary and Italy. The Triple Alliance was primarily defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war in 1914, while many of the terms of both agreements were informal and contradicted by others; for example, Italy renewed the Triple Alliance in 1902 but secretly agreed with France to remain neutral if it was attacked by Germany.[12] As the war widened, the Entente added Italy, Japan and eventually the United States to form the Allied Powers, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined Germany and Austria to create the Central Powers.

Between 1908 and 1914, the Balkans had been destabilised by the combination of a weakened Ottoman Empire, the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars and competing Russian and Austro-Hungarian objectives.[13] On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis.[14][15] On 23 July, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia; interlocking alliances quickly drew in all the major European powers with their respective colonial empires and the conflict rapidly spread across the globe.

On 25 July, the Russian government issued orders for the ‘period preparatory to war’; after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved of the military districts nearest to Austria, including Kiev, Kazan, Odessa and Moscow.[16] General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; on the 31st, Austria-Hungary and Germany did the same, while Germany demanded Russia demobilise within 12 hours.[17] When Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th; France ordered full mobilisation in support of Russia on 2 August.[18] French entry into the war stemmed from a combination of the desire to regain the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine ceded after the 1870–1871 Franco-Prussian War, concern at Germany’s increasing power and military commitments agreed with Russia.[19]

German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks, then shift forces to the East before Russia could fully mobilise; this was later known as the Schlieffen Plan.[20] On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France.[21] When this was refused, German forces entered Belgium early on the morning of 3 August and declared war with France the same day; the Belgian government invoked the 1839 Treaty of London and in compliance with its obligations under this, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August.[22][23]On 12 August, Britain and France also declared war on Austria-Hungary; on the 23rd, the Empire of Japan joined the Allied Powers, seizing the opportunity to expand its sphere of influence by capturing German possessions in China and the Pacific. On 24 August, Serbia won a major victory over the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer.

BMW

BMW originally an initialism for Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG
Aktiengesellschaft
Traded as FWBBMW
DAX Component
Industry Automotive
Predecessor Rapp Motorenwerke
Bayerische Flugzeugwerke
Founded 7 March 1916; 102 years ago
Founder Karl Rapp
Headquarters MunichGermany
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Norbert Reithofer
(Chairman)
Harald Krüger
(CEO)
Products Luxury carsmotorcyclesengines
Brands
Production output
Increase 2,691,423 vehicles (2017)
Revenue Increase 98.678 billion (2017)
Increase €10.655 billion (2017)
Increase €8.706 billion (2017)
Total assets Increase €193.483 billion (2017
Total equity Increase €54.548 billion (2017)
Owner Stefan Quandt (29%)
Susanne Klatten (21%)
Public float (50%)
Number of employees
129,932 (2017)

Burgman

The Burgman series of scooters (known in Japan as Skywave) is produced by Suzuki with engine capacities from 125 cc up to 638 cc.

Suzuki Burgman
BURGMAN650 K6.JPG

Burgman 650
Manufacturer Suzuki
Also called Pagal
Production since 1998
Class Scooter
Engine 125–638 cc
Transmission V-belt (400); CVT (650)
Seat height 28 to 29.5 inches (710–750 mm)
Weight Burgman 125: 159 kg (351 lb)
Burgman 400: 222 kg (489 lb)
Burgman 650: 269 kg (593 lb) (dry)
Fuel capacity 11 L (2.4 imp gal; 2.9 US gal) to 15 L (3.3 imp gal; 4.0 US gal)

AN series

Launched in 1998, the original model line-up consisted of the AN250 and AN400Y models. In 2002 the AN250 was dropped, replaced by the European-legislation compliant for learner-license purposes UH125. However, the AN250 continued to be released in other countries. The UH prefix was used on this model due to a current model of non Burgman heritage still being produced. This is the AN125 and bears no resemblance nor lineage with the Burgman series.

AN2 series

In 2002, the fuel injected AN2 series was launched in UH125, AN400 and AN650 (L2) variants. With a redesigned fairing package allowing for better lighting, more storage capacity and 1litre more fuel capacity, there was also the option for ABS on the AN400 and AN650 models. The AN400 was available in USA markets in 2002 and the following year the AN650 (L3) came to USA. Changes to the eCVT and computer on the AN650 (L5) in 2005.

In 2004, Suzuki launched an up-market AN650A Executive (Non-USA), which involved a full ABS and accessories package.

Burgman 400 had a few models

2005-2006? Burgman 400S became available, featured chrome handle bars, a lower sport like bike windshield, and white and red gauges

in 2007 the 400 was updated from a 13″ to a 14″ front wheel, dual disc brakes in the front

In 2018 the Burgman 400 was totally redesigned 

i really like this mo

Varun dhawan

Varun Dhawan (born 24 April 1987) is an Indian actor. One of the country’s highest-paid celebrities, he has has featured in Forbes India‘s Celebrity 100 list since 2014. Each of the eleven films in which he has starred were commercially successful, establishing Dhawan in Hindi cinema.

Varun Dhawan
Varun Dhawan promoting Badrinath Ki Dulhania.jpg

Dhawan at an event for Badrinath Ki Dulhania in 2017
Born 24 April 1987 (age 31)
Mumbai, India
Alma mater Nottingham Trent University
Occupation Actor
Years active 2012–present
Parent(s) David Dhawan
Relatives See Dhawan family

The son of film director David Dhawan, he studied business management from the Nottingham Trent University, after which he worked as an assistant director to Karan Johar on the 2010 drama My Name Is Khan. Dhawan made his acting debut with Johar’s 2012 teen drama Student of the Year, for which he received a Filmfare nomination for Best Male Debut.

Dhawan rose to prominence with starring roles in the romance Humpty Sharma Ki Dulhania (2014), the dance film ABCD 2 (2015), and the action comedies Dilwale (2015), Dishoom (2016) and Judwaa 2 (2017). He also received critical acclaim for playing an avenger in the crime thriller Badlapur (2015), a chauvinistic man in the romance Badrinath Ki Dulhania (2017), and an aimless man coping with loss in the drama October (2018); the former two earned him nominations for the Filmfare Award for Best Actor.