Block Diagrams

Related imageA block diagram is a diagram of a system in which the principal parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks. They are heavily used in engineering in hardware design, electronic design, software design, and process flow diagrams.

Block diagrams are typically used for higher level, less detailed descriptions that are intended to clarify overall concepts without concern for the details of implementation. Contrast this with the schematic diagrams and layout diagrams used in electrical engineering, which show the implementation details of electrical components and physical constructio


USAGE- As an example, a block diagram of a radio is not expected to show each and every connection and dial and switch, but the schematic diagram is. The schematic diagram of a radio does not show the width of each connection in the printed circuit board, but the layout diagram does.

To make an analogy to the map making world, a block diagram is similar to a highway map of an entire nation. The major cities (functions) are listed but the minor county roads and city streets are not. When troubleshooting, this high level map is useful in narrowing down and isolating where a problem or fault is.

Robotics- Algorithms

In mathematics and computer science, a) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks.

An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing “output” and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.


Circuits and Switches

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Circuits Basis and how it works-

You’ve probably heard that a battery or a wall outlet has a certain number of volts This is a measurement of the electrical potential produced by the battery, or the utility grid connected to the wall outlet.

All those volts are sitting there waiting for you to use them, but there’s a catch: in order for electricity to do any work, it needs to be able to move. It’s kind of like a blown-up balloon; if you pinch it off, there is air in there that could do something if it’s released, but it won’t actually do anything until you let it out.

Unlike air coming out of a balloon, electricity can only flow through materials that can conduct electricity, such as copper wire. If you connect a wire to a battery or wall outlet (WARNING: the voltage in a wall outlet is dangerous, don’t do this!), you will be giving the electricity a path to follow. But if the wire isn’t connected to anything else, the electricity won’t have anywhere to go and still won’t move.

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What makes electricity move? Electricity wants to flow from a higher voltage to a lower voltage. This is exactly like the balloon: the pressurized air in the balloon wants to flow from inside the balloon (higher pressure) to outside the balloon (lower pressure). If you create a conductive path between a higher voltage and a lower voltage, electricity will flow along that path. And if you insert something useful into that path like an LED, the flowing electricity will do some work for you.alt text

Switches are similar to hubs, only smarter. A hub simply connects all the nodes on the network communication is essentially in a haphazard manner with any device trying to communicate at any time, resulting in many collisions. A switch, on the other hand, creates an electronic tunnel between source



Humanoid Robot

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humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of al locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots also have heads designed to replicate human facial features such as eyes and mouths. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble humans.

Image result for humanoid robotHumanoid robots are now used as research tools in several scientific areas. Researchers study the human body structure and behavior (biomechanics) to build humanoid robots. On the other side, the attempt to simulate the human body leads to a better understanding of it. Human cognition is a field of study which is focused on how humans learn from sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behavior and it has been improving over time.

Related imageSensors

A sensor is a device that measures some attribute of the world. Being one of the three primitives of robotics (besides planning and control), sensing plays an important role in robotic paradigms. Sensors can be classified according to the physical process with which they work or according to the type of measurement information that they give as output. In this case, the second approach was used.

Review of the book- Secret Seven -Enid Blyton


Enid Mary Blyton born on 11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children’s writer whose books have been among the world’s best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies.

Blyton’s books are still enormously popular, and have been translated into 90 languages; her first book, Child Whispers, a 24-page collection of poems, was published in 1922. She wrote on a wide range of topics including education, natural history, fantasy, mystery, and biblical narratives and is best remembered today for her Noddy, Famous Five, and Secret Seven series.


The Secret Seven is a fictional group of child detectives created by Enid Blyton. They appear in one of several adolescent detective series Blyton wrote.

Main characters-

The Secret Seven consists of Peter (the society’s head), Janet (Peter’s Sister), Jack, Barbara, George, Pam and Colin. Jack’s sister Susie and her best friend Binkie


The Secret Seven Society consists of Peter, his sister Janet, and their friends Jack, Colin, George, Pam and Barbara. Although not an official member of the Secret Seven, Peter and Janet’s golden spaniel Scamper also attends meetings. After all, he can be trusted not to give away any secrets to Jack’s interfering sister Susie!


The children meet in a shed with “S.S.” on the door. Admission is by password only and badges must be worn. Peter, as head of the society, makes jolly well sure that everyone complies with the rules!


While munching rock-buns and guzzling home-made lemonade, the Seven puzzle over peculiar goings-on in their local community, aiming to solve mysteries and put things right. Their work often involves hiding and keeping watch, hunting for clues, shadowing suspicious characters and questioning people. Burglaries, stolen animals and missing children feature in various stories — as do fireworks, a tree-house, a telescope and Susie’s toy aeroplane.




Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday’s law of induction.

Lenz’s law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday’s law was later generalized to become the Maxwell–Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell’s equations in James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic induction has found many applications in technology, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators.

The Galaxy Note 8



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Samsung Galaxy Note 8 is an Android phablet smartphone. It was designed, developed and marketed by Samsung Electronics. It was unveiled  on 23 August 2017. It is the successor to the discontinued Samsung Galaxy Note 7. It was released on 15 September 2017. The Note 8 improves on the core device specifications and hallmark S Pen features of previous devices. While retaining the overall same look and same approximate size as the Galaxy S8+, it features an upgraded processor.

For the first time in Samsung’s smartphone history, a dual-camera system on the rear of the device; one functions as a wide-angle lens and the other as a telephoto lens, with both featuring 12 MP resolution and optical image stabilization. The S Pen has increased pressure sensitivity levels and its software has been upgraded to offer improved note taking capabilities on the always-on display, as well as animated GIF and improved translation features.


The Samsung Note 8 comes with Android 7.1.1 “Nougat” with Samsung’s own custom user interface pre – installed. The S Pen offers expanded software features, including “Live Message” feature for the creation of handwritten notes combined with emoji’s resulting in short animated GIF’s. Users can remove the S Pen from the device and immediately write notes on the display through “Screen Off Memo”, which works due to the screen’s always-on capabilities. The screen can collect up to 100 notes and allows the user to easily go back to notes pinned directly on the always-on screen.

A “Translate” feature now recognizes punctuation marks, letting users highlight entire sentences rather than single words. It supports 71 different languages. The edges of the screen on the Note 8 allow the user to open two apps at once in a multi-window view, dubbed “App Pair”. In the Camera application, a new “Live Focus” effect lets users adjust the intensity of background blur both before and after capturing photos, while “Dual Capture” makes both rear cameras take individual photos of the same subject, with one acting as a close-up shot and the other from a distance capturing the whole scene.


Related imageA picture of “THE GALAXY NOTE 8”.


What is Tesla???


Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors) is an American automaker, energy storage company, and solar panel manufacturer based in Palo Alto, California. Founded in 2003, the company specializes in electric cars, lithium-ion battery energy storage, and residential photovoltaic panels (through the subsidiary company SolarCity).  The additional products Tesla sells include the Tesla Powerwall and Powerpack batteries, solar panels and solar roof tiles.

CEO Elon Musk said that he envisions Tesla as a technology company and independent automaker, aimed at eventually offering electric cars at prices affordable to the average consumer. The company was named after the Serbian. American electrical engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla by company co-founders Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning.

The company’s Model S was the world’s best-selling plug-in electric car in 2015 and 2016. Global sales of the Model S reached 150,000 units in November 2016. In September 2015 the company released its Model X, a crossover SUV. The Model 3 was released in July 2017. Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017. Tesla operates multiple production and assembly plants, notably Gigafactory 1 near Reno, Nevada and its main vehicle manufacturing facility at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California.

eThe Gigafactory primarily produces batteries and battery packs for Tesla vehicles and energy storage products. In 2016, Tesla topped Consumer Reports Annual Owner Satisfaction Survey at 91%. In February 2017, Consumer Reports named Tesla as the top American car brand and ranked it 8th among global carmakers.

Electric Cars


An electric car is an automobile that puts out no emissions, and is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the 1880s.

Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engines, electric starters in particular, and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles.

In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the USA. New York City taxis were electric, and they were manufactured by the Philadelphian Electric Carriage and Wagon company. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Riker, Milburn and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were quieter and did not require gear changes.

Since 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, concerns about increasing oil prices, and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and now adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range. The current tax credit allowed by the US Government is between $2,500 – $7,500 per car. Compared with cars with internal combustion (IC) engines, electric cars are quieter and have no tailpipe emissions. When recharged by low-emission electrical power sources, electric vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to IC engines. Where oil is imported, use of electric vehicles can reduce imports. However, a proper analysis of the overall benefit/efficiency of an electric vehicle must include what type of source was used to charge the battery, the energy required to make the battery, and the energy expended in disposing of it, in an environmentally sound manner.



Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV). The term “electric vehicle” refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while “electric car” generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States, and as electric motorized quadricycles in Europe, are plug-in electric-powered micro cars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.

What is NASA?


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.


Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches.


NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big , through the Great Observatories and associated programs. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Creation