Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (they have died), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential synthetic life as “living”. Biology is the science concerned with the study of life.


Plants in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda
Scientific classification
Domains and Supergroups
Life on Earth:

Non-cellular life[note 1] [note 2]Viruses[note 3]
Cellular lifeDomain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain EukaryaArchaeplastida
There is currently no consensus regarding the definition of life. One popular definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, have a life cycle, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, reproduce and evolve. However, several other definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses or viroids.

Abiogenesis attempts to describe the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity. Life on Earth first appeared as early as 4.28 billion years ago, soon after ocean formation 4.41 billion years ago, and not long after the formation of the Earth 4.54 billion years ago.[1][2][3][4] The earliest known life forms are microfossils of bacteria.[5][6] Earth’s current life may have descended from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first. The mechanism by which life began on Earth is unknown, though many hypotheses have been formulated and are often based on the Miller–Urey experiment.

Since its primordial beginnings, life on Earth has changed its environment on a geologic time scale, but it has also adapted to survive in most ecosystems and conditions. Some microorganisms, called extremophiles, thrive in physically or geochemically extreme environments that are detrimental to most other life on Earth. The cell is considered the structural and functional unit of life.[7] There are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, both of which consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane and contain many biomolecules such as proteinsand nucleic acids. Cells reproduce through a process of cell division, in which the parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

In the past, there have been many attempts to define what is meant by “life” through obsolete concepts such as odic force, hylomorphism, spontaneous generation and vitalism, that have now been disproved by biological discoveries. Aristotle was the first person to classify organisms. Later, Carl Linnaeus introduced his system of binomial nomenclature for the classification of species. Eventually new groups and categories of life were discovered, such as cells and microorganisms, forcing dramatic revisions of the structure of relationships between living organisms. Though currently only known on Earth, life need not be restricted to it, and many scientists speculate in the existence of extraterrestrial life. Artificial life is a computer simulation or man-made reconstruction of any aspect of life, which is often used to examine systems related to natural life.

Death is the permanent termination of all biological functions which sustain an organism, and as such, is the end of its life. Extinction is the term describing the dying out of a group or taxon, usually a species. Fossilsare the preserved remains or traces of organisms.


On 29 September 2016, India announced that it conducted “surgical strikes” against militant launch pads across the Line of Control in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, and inflicted “significant casualties”.[9] Indian media reported the casualty figures variously from 35 to 50.[10][11][4] Partial footage of the surgical strikes was released to the Indian media on 27 June 2018.[12][13][14]

Pakistan rejected this claim,[15] stating that Indian troops had not crossed the Line of Control but had only skirmished with Pakistani troops at the border, resulting in the deaths of two Pakistani soldiers and the wounding of nine.[2][16] Pakistan rejected India’s reports of any other casualties.[17] Pakistani sources reported that at least 8 Indian soldiers were killed in the exchange, and one was captured.[18][19] India confirmed that one of its soldiers was in Pakistani custody, but denied that it was linked to the incident or that any of its soldiers had been killed.[20] Pakistan said India was hiding its casualties.[21]

Media outlets noted that the details regarding the “attack” were still unclear.[22][23] Earlier that month, four militants had attacked the Indian army at Uri on 18 September in the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, and killed 19 soldiers. India’s announcement of the claimed raid on 29 September marked the first time that the government had publicly acknowledged its forces crossing the Line of Control, amidst skepticism and disputing accounts.[24][25] In the succeeding days and months, India and Pakistan continued to exchange fire along the border in Kashmir, resulting in dozens of military and civilian casualties on both the sides.


On 18 September, a fedayeen attack was made by four armed militants on an army base near the town of Uri. Nineteen Indian Army soldiers were killed. India accused Jaish-e-Muhammad, a Pakistan-based terrorist organisation.[26] Having come after similar fidayeen attacks in Gurdaspur and Pathankot, the Uri attack gave rise to high degree of concern in India.[27] The following day, the Indian army said that it had displayed considerable restraint in the wake of the attacks, but it reserved the right to respond “at the time and place of our own choosing.”.[28]

The Guardian said that Indian patience had run out due to Pakistan’s inaction in curbing the activities of terrorist organisations such as Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad.[29] On 21 September, India summoned the Pakistan High Commission Abdul Bassit and gave a protest letter detailing the involvement of a terrorist group based in Pakistan.[30] Pakistan later said that India had provided no evidence that the Uri attack was launched from Pakistan. Pakistan’s defence minister suggested that India had carried out the Uri attack to deflect attention from the popular protests in Jammu and Kashmir.[29] The Hindustan Times reported that the minister’s comments made up an “inflection point”, after which India decided to respond militarily.[30]

Indian officials said that the cross-border infiltration across the Line of Control had surged since the unrest began in Kashmir. The persons crossing the border showed evidence of military training.[31] According to a government source close to Home Minister Rajnath Singh, a meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Security was held on 24 September, at which “broad details of targeting terrorists” were discussed.[32]

Surgical strikes

On 29 September, eleven days after the Uri attack, the Indian Army conducted surgical strikes against suspected militants in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Lt Gen Ranbir Singh, Indian Director General of Military Operations (DGMO), said that it had received “very credible and specific information” about “terrorist teams” who were preparing to “carry out infiltration and conduct terrorist strikes inside Jammu and Kashmir and in various metros in other states”. The Indian action was meant to pre-empt their infiltration.[22][23] India presented its operation as preemptive self-defence against terrorism, striking against terrorist infrastructure along with “those who are trying to support them.” Columnist Ankit Panda thought the latter included Pakistani soldiers or the elements of Pakistani state.[33] On 30 September, Indian minister for information and broadcasting Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore said that there had been no aerial strikes and that the operation had been conducted “on the ground”.[34][35]

Ranbir Singh said that his Pakistani counterpart had been informed.[2] The Pakistani military said the DGMO communications discussed only the cross-border firing, which was part of the existing rules of engagement.[36]

Pakistan denied that such surgical strikes occurred. The Inter-Services Public Relations said that there had been only “cross border firing”.[33] But, Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif condemned the “unprovoked and aggression of Indian forces”, and said that Pakistani military was capable of thwarting any attacks by India.[22][37]

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon said that the UN Observer Group in Pakistani Kashmir did not directly observe any “firing across the Line of Control” relating to the incident.[38][39] The Indian envoy at UN Syed Akbaruddin dismissed this statement, saying “facts on the ground do not change whether somebody acknowledges or not.”[39]

Analyst Sandeep Singh, writing in The Diplomat, said that the operation is better characterised as a cross-border raid because “surgical strikes” involve striking deep into the enemy territory and typically using air power.[40]

Indian version[edit]

Indian officials said the strike targeted areas close to the Line of Control (LoC), where it believes militants congregate for their final briefings before sneaking across the LoC. An Indian security source said the operation began with Indian forces firing artillery across the frontier to provide cover for three to four teams of 70–80 soldiers from the 4th and 9th battalions of the Parachute Regiment (Special Forces) to cross the LoC at several separate points shortly after midnight IST on 29 September (18:30 hours UTC, 28 Sep). Teams from 4 Para crossed the LoC in the Nowgam sector of Kupwara district, while teams from 9 Para simultaneously crossed the LoC in Poonch district.[3][2] By 2 a.m. IST, according to army sources, the special forces teams had travelled 1–3 km on foot, and had begun destroying terrorist bases with hand-held grenades and 84 mm rocket launchers. The teams then swiftly returned to the Indian side of the Line of Control, suffering only one casualty, a soldier wounded after tripping a land mine.[3]

The Indian Army said the strike was a pre-emptive attack on militant bases, claiming that it had received intelligence that the militants were planning “terrorist strikes” against India.[22][23] India said that, in destroying “terrorist infrastructure” it also attacked “those who are trying to support them”, indicating it attacked Pakistani soldiers too.[33] India later briefed opposition parties and foreign envoys, but did not disclose operational details.[2]

Some Indian media claimed that the Indian army infiltrated 2–3 km into Pakistani territory,[16] but the Indian Army did not say whether its troops crossed the border or had simply fired across it.[22] India said that none of its soldiers were killed though two soldiers were injured.[2] It also stated that one of its soldiers, from 37 Rashtriya Rifles, was captured by Pakistan after he “inadvertently crossed over to the Pakistan side”, though not during the “surgical strikes.”[20]

Initially, Indian media claimed that the army used helicopters during the skirmish. On 30 September, an Indian minister denied that there were any helicopters used, stating the operation was conducted “on the ground”.[34][35]

Pakistani version[edit]

Pakistan denied that any surgical strikes occurred. Pakistan’s Foreign Office rejected the claim as “baseless” and said India was “deliberately” escalating conflict.[15] The Pakistan Army said that there had only been “cross border firing”.[33] Pakistan warned that it would respond militarily should any surgical strike actually occur.[16] The two soldiers killed were identified as Naik Imtiaz and Havildar Jumma Khan.[15]

Pakistani sources reported that hours after the strike, up to fourteen Indian soldiers were killed in retaliatory firing across the LOC and one was captured, Chandu Babulal Chavan.[18]It further stated that India was concealing its casualty figures from the cross-border firing.[21][18][41] It was later reported that the captured India soldier had wandered across the border in a different sector of the Line of control, where no conflict was reported.[42] He was later returned to India.[43]

Media reports[edit]

Lieutenant general Ranbir Singh, the Indian Army DGMO, only stated during his press conference on 29 September that the number of casualties inflicted had been “significant.”[9]Most accounts in the Indian media varied as to the number of militants killed, with most publications giving estimates of 35 to 50 killed.[10][11] On 9 October, the Indian army said that it had intercepted radio messages of the Pakistan army and claimed that “around 20” Lashkar-e-Taiba militants had been killed, including at least 10 during the surgical strikes and nine[clarification needed] killed at Balnoi (opposite of Poonch).[44]

On 1 October, the Pakistani army gave international media outlets including BBCCNNVOAReutersAPAFP and Newsweek a tour of the sites which India claimed to have hit on 29 September.[45] The Pakistan army claimed that had there been a “surgical strike”, there would have been more damage. The journalists confirmed that the “area seemed intact”, but added that they only saw what the Pakistani army showed them.[46] The Economist remarked that they were taken to the border “under strict supervision, naturally”.[47]

On 5 October, The Indian Express stated it had managed to conduct covert interviews with eyewitnesses living across the Line of Control (LoC). The Express claimed that eyewitnesses corroborated the Indian account by describing fire engagements with militants and the destruction of some makeshift buildings that housed militants; but that there was little damage to infrastructure. However, the Express said that according to eyewitness accounts, and classified documents, the number of militants killed was lower than the 38–50 number reported by Indian officials; there were reports that “five, perhaps six” bodies had been trucked out the morning after the raids from Dudhnial (4 km from the LoC), while three or four militants were killed near Khairati Bagh. The Express said that the militants, many of whom belonged to Lashkar-e-Taiba, were caught by surprise. Other accounts reported “fire and explosions” from the east bank of the Neelum River in Athmuqam.[48]

On 5 October, India’s CNN-News18 claimed that it conducted a “sting operation” where their news correspondent posing as an Inspector General of Police made a phone call to a Superintendent of Police (SP) Ghulam Akbar in Mirpur. In an audio conversation aired on the news channel, a voice claiming to be Akbar reveals details about the military action of 29 September including the places of strikes and the number of Pakistani casualties, quoted as 12 people including 5 military personnel. The voice says that the bodies were said to have been carried away in coffins and buried in the villages, and that an unknown amount of militants (“jihadis”) had also died.[49][50][51] On 6 October, Pakistan’s Foreign Office said that the voice in the audio conversation did not belong to Ghulam Akbar, and that Akbar had denied the alleged phone conversation. The ministry called the story a fabrication, and hoped that CNN International would take action against its Indian affiliate.[52]

On 23 October, a BBC News article by M. Ilyas Khan quoted unnamed police officials and locals stating the Indians appeared to have crossed the LoC, in some cases by more than a kilometer, to attack Pakistani border posts. The article said the Indian Army had conducted a ground assault in the Pooch sector, destroying a Pakistani post and killing a soldier; setup their guns on a ridge in Leepa valley, hitting three posts and killing four Pakistani soldiers; and advanced in the Dudhnial sector injuring a Pakistani soldier, but were beaten back after their movements were detected. The report also took statements from villagers at Madarpur (Poonch District) and Leepa Valley (Bagh District) and Dudhnial (Neelam District) who confided that Indian troops directed heavy fire at several Pakistani border posts. The BBC News could not verify if any militants were hit. Villagers in Dudhnial said that they saw one or two damaged structures close to a Pakistani border post. The villagers in Leepa Valley said that, following the attack, there was an increased influx of militants to the valley.[53]

The Economist wrote that by interviewing eyewitnesses and anonymous officials, journalists in both Pakistan and India have pieced together an account of what happened:

it appears that small teams of Indian commandos had slipped across the line to strike at safe houses believed to be used by Islamist guerrillas. The number killed was estimated at a dozen or fewer, rather than the 38-50 initially claimed by India. None of those killed were Pakistani army personnel. And since the Pakistani government has no wish to inflame domestic opinion and so be forced to escalate matters, it preferred to pretend that nothing had happened.[47]


Indian intelligence sources claimed that, immediately after the raid, the Pakistan military had buried the corpses of the slain terrorists to erase any evidence and to maintain Pakistan’s version of a “skirmish” along the Line of Control.[4] However, Pakistan rejected that any such casualties occurred, questioning: “Where did all the dead bodies go?”[17]Pakistan’s military also pointed to the lack of damage or losses in the site, and welcomed UN observers and journalists to conduct an independent inquiry.[17] Increased firing along the Line of Control was reported the following day.[54]

A senior Indian Home Ministry official subsequently claimed that in the wake of the raid, at least 12 training camps belonging to Lashkar-e-TaibaHizbul Mujahideen and Jaish-e-Mohammad had been swiftly moved from their locations at Pir Chanasi, Aksha Maskar and Tabuk near Muzaffarabad in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Based on satellite images, inputs from foreign intelligence agencies and unnamed “sources in Pakistan,” according to the official, the training camps had been relocated “near crowded towns deep inside Pakistan,” in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab, to “minimise casualties to their assets.” According to the Indian official, the camps had housed around 500 militants, 300 of whom belonged to Lashkar-e-Taiba alone.[55]

An eyewitness living across the LoC was one of five contacted through intermediaries for covert interviews with the Indian Express. He reported that on 30 September, a day after the surgical strikes, several members of Lashkar-e-Taiba had met for Friday prayers at a Lashkar-affiliated mosque in Chalhana. “The Lashkar men gathered there were blaming the Pak Army for failing to defend the border”, he said, “and [were] saying they would soon give India an answer it would never forget.”[48] Several days after the raids, a leading Indian security official who had been closely involved in their planning said that Pakistan’s continued denial that any surgical strikes took place was a “stance that suits us.” He further stated – “The surprise element in such an operation is key to its success and there will be no predictable repetition. If provoked yet again, we will amend our operational tactics.”[1]

Both Indian Defence Minister Parrikar and National Security Advisor Doval were shown original, unedited footage from the military raids on 1 October. After viewing it, Parrikar informed Prime Minister Modi that he was satisfied with what he had seen, and that there was no need to publicly release any footage. In response to calls from members of opposition parties to release the footage, a senior government official stated, “The Opposition should understand the difference between a covert and overt strike. And it is not incumbent on the Indian Army to release video footage every time they do their duty.”[56] On 5 October, two senior ministers in the Indian government said the Indian Army had submitted the footage to the government, but that the government, with the concurrence of the army, felt there was no need to release it to the public.[56]

After India’s operation, India and Pakistan increased their exchanges of small arms and mortar fire across the Line of Control, resulting in frequent reports of Indian[57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68] and Pakistani casualties.[69][70][71][72][73][74]


Defence analysts in Pakistan said it was not possible for Indian forces to breach the heavily armed and fenced LoC border undetected, perform operations at multiple sites over several hours, and return without casualties and military resistance. According to one source, the Indian narrative matched a “fantastic movie script” created for public consumption.[75] Ejaz Awan dismissed Indian claims of paratrooper involvement, stating: “For pulling out these troops, you need helicopters on the ground.”[75]

Bruce Riedel, a United States security expert, said that while India’s “surgical military response” was “limited and calibrated,” it would send a sharp signal to the Pakistani establishment. He added that India could legitimately cite a right to self-defence in taking such strong action, following the example of United States operations in Pakistan against Osama bin Laden and Mullah Akhtar Mansour. Riedel observed, however, that regardless of outside support for India’s position, its situation in Kashmir would only worsen unless Prime Minister Modi addressed “the legitimate demands of Kashmiris.” This, according to Riedel, would require Modi to adopt a policy on Kashmir “independent of how he deals with Pakistan,” though his “strong popularity gives him much room to act.”[76]



Across India, the military raid was widely praised. Opposition leader Rahul Gandhi lauded Prime Minister Modi commenting- “for the first time in his tenure, he has taken an action that is worthy of the status of a Prime Minister.”[77]

Following the military raid, in anticipation of cross-border shelling from Pakistan, Indian authorities evacuated 10,000 residents of villages located within ten kilometres of the border, in the states of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. Military surveillance was also stepped up along the Line of Control.[24]


Pakistan rejected the claim of a surgical strike, stating that Indian troops had only engaged in firing upon Pakistani soldiers, killing two Pakistani soldiers and wounding nine.[16][22]The spokesperson for the Pakistani Army asked: “Where is the damage?”, referring to the lack of any evidence of surgical strikes.[17] ISPR spokesman Asim Bajwa termed the “surgical strike” claim an “illusion being deliberately generated by India to create false effects” and a “fabrication of the truth”.[16]

Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif convened an all-parties conference and an emergency cabinet meeting. He stated Pakistan would take any steps necessary to safeguard its territorial integrity. “We will defend our homeland against any aggression. The entire nation is standing shoulder to shoulder with our armed forces.”[78]

Pakistan’s Chief of Army Staff Raheel Sharif termed the Indian claim a “drama”, adding that “If Pakistan were to conduct a surgical strike, it would become a chapter in Indian textbooks.”[79]

Other states[edit]

  •  Afghanistan – Shaida Abdali, Afghanistan’s ambassador to India, expressed support for the military raids by India, stating the actions in Pakistan-administered Kashmir had been conducted in “self-defence.” He added his hopes that “no one will allow safe havens for terrorists to be used against neighbours.”[80]
  •  Bangladesh – Iqbal Chowdhury, the advisor to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, stated India had the “legal, internationally accepted right” to take action. “Bangladesh always believes that any aggression or attack on the sovereignty of the independence and legal right of a country is not acceptable and Bangladesh always feels that any country must honour and respect the sovereignty of a third country.”[81]
  •  Bhutan – Bhutan have backed India on cross-border stand.[82]
  •  China – Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Sheung stated that China, “as a shared neighbour and friend to both India and Pakistan,” was concerned about the “continuous confrontation and tensions” between the two nations. He said China called on “all relevant parties to exercise restraint and refrain from actions that would escalate tension,” and expressed hopes that both parties would address their differences through dialogue.[83]
  •  European Union – Vice President of the European Parliament Czarnecki said that it was necessary for India to maintain pressure on Pakistan for eliminating cross-border terrorism. He praised Indian army and Indian government for its professional approach to the situation.[84]
  •  Germany – Martin Ney, the German ambassador to India, expressed Germany’s support for the military raids and that it stood beside India in its counter-terrorism efforts. Stating that under international law, every nation was obliged to ensure that terrorism did not emanate from its territory, he said there existed a clear international law “that any state has the right to defend its territory from any form of global terrorism.” [85]
  •  Russia – The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed concern over “aggravation” of the situation along the Line of Control, and stated it expected Pakistan to take “effective” steps in stopping the activities of terrorist groups operating from its territory. “We are calling on the parties not to allow any escalation of tension and to settle the existing problems by political and diplomatic means through negotiations. We stand for decisive struggle against terrorism in all its manifestations.”[86] Russian Ambassador to India Alexander Kadakin subsequently said that the Russian Federation was the only country to directly state that terrorists came from Pakistan; he called upon Pakistan to end cross-border terrorism and welcomed India’s surgical strikes. “[The] greatest human rights violations take place when terrorists attack military installations and attack peaceful civilians in India. We welcome the surgical strike. Every country has [the] right to defend itself.”[87]
  •  United States – White House spokesman Josh Earnest encouraged continued talks between India and Pakistan, to avoid further escalating the situation.[2



The Life of Birds is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the United Kingdom from 21 October 1998.


A study of the evolution and habits of birds, it was the third of Attenborough’s specialised surveys following his major trilogy that began with Life on Earth. Each of the ten 50-minute episodes discusses how the huge variety of birds in the world deal with a different aspect of their day-to-day existence.

The series was produced in conjunction with BBC Worldwide Americas Inc. and PBS. The executive producer was Mike Salisbury and the music was composed by Ian Butcher and Steven Faux. It won a Peabody Award in 1999 for combining “spectacular imagery and impeccable science.”[1]

Part of Attenborough’s ‘Life’ series of programmes, it was preceded by The Private Life of Plants (1995), and followed by The Life of Mammals (2002). Before the latter was transmitted, David Attenborough presented State of the Planet (2000) and narrated The Blue Planet (2001).


In common with Attenborough’s previous productions, the programmes include sequences that were filmed in many locales. The series took three years to make, involving visits to 42 countries. The subject matter had been covered before by Attenborough within Life on Earth, in an episode entitled “Lords of the Air”, but now he was free to expand on it. However, by his own confession, despite being especially fascinated by one family, the birds of paradise, Attenborough was not an expert in ornithology. Nevertheless, the notion of an entire series devoted to the creatures excited him, as he would be able to not only communicate his findings to the viewing audience, but further his own knowledge as well.

From the outset, the production team were determined that the sound of birds calling and singing would not be dubbed on to the filmed pictures afterwards: it would be recorded simultaneously. To that end, meticulous care was taken not to include man-made ‘noises off’ from the likes of cars and aeroplanes. For one particular sequence, Britain‘s dawn chorus, it was important that the movement of the beak and the expelled warm air was synchronous with the accompanying song.

A trick used to entice some of the animals near the camera was to play a recording of the same species in the hope that the target would not only answer back, but investigate its source as well. This was employed in the episode “Signals and Songs”, where Attenborough encouraged a superb lyrebird — one of nature’s best mimics — to perform on cue. Despite such fortuity, filming on the series was not all plain sailing: in “Finding Partners”, Attenborough was chased by a capercaillie, which didn’t even stop when the presenter fell over.

A technique that had been previously used for The Living Planet was again called for to film greylag geese in flight. The newly hatched goslings were imprinted with a human ‘mother’, and, when fully grown, were able to be photographed flying alongside an open-top car.[2] Computer animation is utilised in the first episode to illustrate extinct species, such as the terror bird and the moa.

1. “To Fly or Not to Fly?”[edit]

The largest bird, the ostrich(Struthio camelus), is unable to fly, due to its great size.

Broadcast 21 October 1998, the first episode looks at how birds first took to the skies in the wake of the insects. It begins in Mexico, where Attenborough observes bats being outmaneuvered by a red-tailed hawkPterosaurs were the birds’ forerunners, some 150 million years after dragonflies developed the means of flight, but eventually became extinct together with the dinosaurs. Birds had by then already evolved from early forms like Archaeopteryx, the first creature to possess feathers. Its ancestry can be traced through reptiles, and some current species, such as the flying lizard, possibly show paths this evolution may have taken. One of the biggest birds to have ever existed was the terror bird, which proliferated after dinosaurs vanished and stood up to 2.5 metres tall. By comparison, the ostrich, while not closely related, is the largest and heaviest living bird. It was probably the evasion of predators that drove most birds into the air, so their flightless cousins evolved because they had few enemies. Accordingly, such species are more likely to be found on islands, and Attenborough visits New Zealand to observe its great variety, most especially the kiwi. Also depicted is the moa, another huge creature that is now gone. The takahe is extremely rare, and high in the mountains of New Zealand, Attenborough discovers one from a population of only 40 pairs. Finally, another example on the brink of extinction is the kakapo, which at one point numbered only 61 individuals. A male is heard calling — an immensely amplified deep note that can be heard at great distances from its nest.

2. “The Mastery of Flight”[edit]

Broadcast 28 October 1998, the second programme deals with the mechanics of flight. Getting into the air is by far the most exhausting of a bird’s activities, and Attenborough observes shearwaters in Japan that have taken to climbing trees to give them a good jumping-off point. The albatross is so large that it can only launch itself after a run-up to create a flow of air over its wings. A combination of aerodynamics and upward air currents (or thermals), together with the act of flapping or gliding is what keeps a bird aloft. Landing requires less energy but a greater degree of skill, particularly for a big bird, such as a swan. Weight is kept to a minimum by having a beak made of keratin instead of , a light frame, and a coat of feathers, which is maintained fastidiously. The peregrine falcon holds the record for being fastest in the air, diving at speeds of over 300 km/h. Conversely, the barn owlowes its predatory success to flying slowly, while the kestrel spots its quarry by hovering. However, the true specialists in this regard are the hummingbirds, whose wings beat at the rate of 25 times a second. The habits of migratory birds are explored. After stocking up with food during the brief summer of the north, such species will set off on huge journeys southwards. Some, such as the snow goose, travel continuously, using both the stars and the sun for navigation. They are contrasted with hawks and vultures, which glide overland on warm air, and therefore have to stop overnight.

3. “The Insatiable Appetite”[edit]

Broadcast 4 November 1998, the next installment focuses on dietary needs and how different species have evolved beaks to suit their individual requirements. The latter come in a multitude of forms. Blue  and goldfinches have beaks akin to tweezers, with which to extract seeds, while the hawfinch‘s razor-like bill can deal with a cherry-stone. However, the crossbill is the only finch that can twist its mandibles in opposite directions. Jays store acorns for winter by burying them in the ground, whereas woodpeckers can keep up to 60,000 of them in one tree trunk. Sap is also desirable, and there are a variety of methods used to obtain it. The hoatzin is the only specialised leaf-eater, and accordingly has a digestive system more akin to that of cattlePlants recruit birds to aid pollination, and offer nectar as a reward. hummingbirds eat little else, and the sword-bill‘s beak is the longest of any bird in relation to its body. Insects are also highly prized, and Galápagos finches are shown to possess some ingenuity as they not only bark, but also use ‘tools’ to reach their prey. Crows are hailed as being among the most intelligent birds, and one is shown using a twig to spear a grub within a fallen log. The robin is an opportunist, and Attenborough observes one seizing morsels as he digs a patch of earth. In South America, a cattle tyrant sits atop an obliging capybara and uses its vantage point to spot passing food that may be dislodged by its grazing partner.

4. “Meat-Eaters”[edit]

The lammergeier or bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) feeds mainly on marrow, dropping bones from great heights to them.

Broadcast 11 November 1998, this episode examines those birds whose sustenance comes from flesh and their methods of hunting. In New Zealand, Attenborough observes keasparrots that do not eat meat exclusively, raiding a shearwater’s burrow for a chick. However, it is the dedicated birds of prey, such as owlsbuzzardseaglesfalcons and vultures, to which much of the programme is devoted. In order to spot and pursue their victims, senses of sight and hearing are very acute. Vultures are the exception, in that they eat what others have left, and once a carcass is found, so many birds descend on it that the carrion seems submerged beneath them. The turkey vulture is an anomaly within its group, as it also has a keen sense of smell. Eagles defend their territory vigorously, and a pair of sea eagles are shown engaging in an aerial battle. The Galápagos hawk hunts marine iguanas, but can only do so when its quarry is vulnerable, during the breeding season. The African harrier-hawk has adapted to extracting burrowing animals by virtue of an especially long, double-jointed pair of legs. By contrast, a shrike is not equipped with the requisite sharp beak and talons needed for butchery, and so dismembers its by impaling it on the thornsof acacias. The lammergeier eats bones, and will drop them on to rocks from a great height in order to break them down to a digestible size. Also featured are the Eurasian sparrowhawkgoshawk and peregrine falcon.

5. “Fishing for a Living”[edit]

Broadcast 18 November 1998, the next programme details river and ocean dwellers. The dipper swims completely below water to search for food, whereas the kingfisher uses a ‘harpoon’ technique, diving from a vantage point. However, the darter uses a combination of both methods, stalking its prey underwater before spearing it. By contrast, the reddish egret uses a kind of dance to flush out the aquatic inhabitants. Skimmers have different-sized mandibles, the lower one being used to skim the water’s surface for small fish. Duckshave developed an assortment of angling skills. Some dabble, like the mallard, while others are of a more streamlined design and are at home underwater, such as the merganserWaders, which specialise in feeding on mud flats at low tide, include avocetsgodwitsdowitchers and sanderlings. The pelican feeds in groups, their pouch-like bills being more successful when used collectively.  fish in the open ocean and are shown dive-bombing shoals en masse. Attenborough visits Lord Howe Island, off Australia, and by imitating the calls of various birds, invites a group of curious Providence petrels — which are indigenous — to investigate. Because there are no humans in their habitat, they are a very trusting species, as Attenborough discovers when one perches on his hand. Out on a seemingly empty area of ocean, the presenter is able to fill it with various sea birds within seconds, simply by throwing fish oil on to the water.

6. “Signals and Songs”[edit]

Broadcast 25 November 1998, this installment describes ways of communicating. A colony of fieldfares in Sweden deters a raven from raiding a nest by collectively raising an audible alarm. However, in an English wood, all species co-operate to warn each other surreptitiously of approaching danger. By contrast, a sunbittern is shown expanding its plumage to discourage a group of marauding hawks. The members of the finch family exemplify how colour aids recognition. Birds have excellent colour vision, and the feathers of many species react to ultraviolet light. Flocking birds, such as sparrows, also have a ‘ranking system’ that determines seniority. In Patagonia, Attenborough demonstrates the effectiveness of sound: he summons a Magellanic woodpecker by knocking on a tree. The nature of tropical rainforests means that their occupants tend to make much louder calls than those in other habitats, and several such species are shown. Saddlebacks vary their calls so that even individuals from different areas can be identified. The dawn chorus provides a mystery, as there is still much to learn about why so many different birds sing together at the same time of day. (Proclaiming territory or attracting mates are two likely reasons.) Finally, Attenborough introduces the superb lyrebird as one of the most versatile performers: it is a skilled mimic, and this particular one imitates not only other species, but also cameras, a car alarm and a chain saw.

7. “Finding Partners”[edit]

A male great frigatebird (Fregata minor) nesting on Genvoesa in the Galapagos.

Broadcast 2 December 1998, this programme discusses mating rituals. If a male bird is on the lookout for a partner and has a suitable nest, it must advertise the fact, either by its call, a visual display or both. The frigatebird provides an example of the latter, with its inflated throat pouch. The hornbill‘s courtship, among that of many others, also runs to the offer of a gift. For some species, dancing can also be an important component, and grebes are shown performing a pas de deux. The -of-the-rock, which dances solo within a group, is contrasted with the team performance of the manakin. Once trust has been established between a pair, mutual preening can follow. After mating, the individuals usually remain together to rear their eventual family. The Temminck’s Tragopan with its beautiful and colorful neck, the Himalayan Monal with glowing feather’s colors and the huge tailed great argus to the peacock with its colorful and huge tail.

In this regard, the rhea and the phalarope are highlighted as unusual because in both instances, it is the male that incubates the eggs. Some females judge a prospective companion on its nest-building ability, and this is a conspicuous part of the weaver‘s behaviour. The bowerbirdputs on one of the most elaborate displays: a hut-like construction, completed by a collection of objects designed to impress. Competition among males can be fierce and in Scotland, Attenborough observes rival capercaillies engaging in battle — after one of them chases the presenter. Avian polyandry is not widespread, but is illustrated by the superb fairy-wren, where the male’s family can easily comprise young that it did not father.

8. “The Demands of the Egg”[edit]

Broadcast 9 December 1998, this episode explores the lengths to which birds will go to ensure that their chicks are brought into the world. Attenborough begins on an island in the Seychelles, where sooty terns, which have hitherto spent their lives on the wing, have landed to lay their eggs. This is a necessity for birds, as eggs are too heavy to be borne in the air for any considerable length of time. It is imperative that nests are kept as far away from predators as possible, and unusual locations for them are shown, such as: behind the water curtain of Iguazu Falls in South America (as chosen by swifts), cliffs on Argentina‘s coast favoured by parrots, an ants’ nest occupied by a woodpecker, and a tree hole inside which a female hornbill seals itself. Eggs require warmth, and some nests are insulated by the owners’ feathers, others from ones found elsewhere. External temperatures dictate how the eggs are incubated. The snowy owl has to do so itself, because of its habitat; however, the maleo is able to take advantage of solar heating. The amount of eggs laid also varies: for example, the kiwi lays just one, whereas the blue will deposit many. Their mottled surface serves to camouflage them. Birds that steal eggs include toucans and currawongs. A number of strategies are employed to deter the thieves, as illustrated by the yellow-rumped thornbill, which builds a decoy nest atop its actual one, and the plover, which distracts marauders by feigning injury.

9. “The Problems of Parenthood”[edit]

Broadcast 16 December 1998, the penultimate installment concentrates on the ways in which birds rear their offspring. Having successfully incubated their eggs, the moment arrives when they hatch — and then the real challenge begins: feeding the chicks. Lapland buntings and dippers are shown doing so virtually non-stop throughout the day. The Gouldian finch has a further problem in that its tree-hollow nest is dark inside, so its young have conspicuous markings inside their mouths for identification. Grebes are fed feathers with which to line the stomach, and so protect it from fish bones. Coots and pelicans are among those that turn on their own and force death by starvation if there is insufficient food. The European cuckoo tricks other species into raising its chick, but it is by no means alone in doing this. Protecting a family is also a priority, and brent geese are shown nesting close to snowy owls as a means of insurance, but as soon as the eggs hatch, they and their young must flee to avoid giving their neighbours an easy meal. The million or so sooty terns in the Seychelles prove that there is safety in numbers and the nearby predatory egrets have little success when attempting to steal. The behaviour of Arabian babblers is more akin to that of a troop of monkeys: they do everything for the benefit of a group as a whole. Eventually the day will come when flight beckons, and the grown bird will leave the nest to start a family of its own.

10. “The Limits of Endurance”[edit]

The orange-bellied parrot(Neophema chrysogaster) is a critically endangered species.

Broadcast 23 December 1998, the final programme investigates the challenges that must be surmounted if birds are to survive. The sandgrouse is a species that has adapted to desert living: its feathers are capable of absorbing water, which it can pass on to its young. The crab plover also nests in the sand, and burrows until it finds a comfortable temperature. Birds that choose remote places can proliferate hugely, like the flamingos on an African soda lake. Meanwhile, during winter, the entire world population of spectacled eiders can be found in just a few assemblies on patches of the Arctic Ocean. The city is a relatively recent habitat, but many have become accustomed to it, such as the American black vultures in São Paulo. In Japan, crows have learned to nuts by dropping them on to pedestrian crossings — and waiting for the traffic to stop before collecting them. In North Americapurple martins have become totally dependent on humans for their nest sites. Attenborough highlights man’s influence by describing the Pacific island of Guam, whose bird population was wiped out following the accidental introduction of brown tree snakes during the 1940s. Examples of species that were hunted to extinction are the huia, the great auk and, most famously, the dodo. However, there are conservation efforts being made, such as those for Australia’s orange-bellied parrot, the pink pigeon and the echo parakeet (the latter two both of Mauritius).

“Birds were flying from continent to continent long before we were. They reached the coldest place on Earth, Antarctica, long before we did. They can survive in the hottest of deserts. Some can remain on the wing for years at a time. They can girdle the globe. Now, we have taken over the earth and the sea and the sky, but with skill and care and knowledge, we can ensure that there is still a place on Earth for birds in all their beauty and variety — if we want to… And surely, we should.”

— David Attenborough, in closing


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2880 × 1999
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  • Republic Day honors the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.
  • On Republic Day, flag hoisting ceremonies and parades by armed forces and school children are held in different parts of the country. The grandest and most important of these parades is held at Rajpath in New Delhi
  • The Constitution was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, completing the country’s transition towards becoming an independent republic

  • The main Republic Day celebration is held in the national capital, New Delhi, at the Rajpath before the President of India. On this day, ceremonious parades take place at the Rajpath, which are performed as a tribute to India; its unity in diversity and rich cultural heritage.

  • held in the capital, New Delhi organized by the Ministry of Defense Commencing from the gates of the Rastrapati Bhawan (the President’s residence), Risina hill on Rajpath past the India Gate, this event is the main attraction of India’s Republic Day Celebrations lasting three days. The parade showcases India’s Defense Capability, Cultural and Social Heritage.
  •  The guest country is chosen after a deliberation of strategic, economic and political interests.
  • THANK YOU!!!

My favourite song

I found a love for me
Darling just dive right in
And follow my lead
Well I found a girl beautiful and sweet
I never knew you were the someone waiting for me
‘Cause we were just kids when we fell in love
Not knowing what it was
I will not give you up this time
But darling, just kiss me slow, your heart is all I own
And in your eyes you’re holding mine
Baby, I’m dancing in the dark with you between my arms
Barefoot on the grass, listening to our favorite song
When you said you looked a mess, I whispered underneath my breath
But you heard it, darling, you look perfect tonight
Well I found a woman, stronger than anyone I know
She shares my dreams, I hope that someday I’ll share her home
I found a love, to carry more than just my secrets
To carry love, to carry children of our own
We are still kids, but we’re so in love
Fighting against all odds
I know we’ll be alright this time
Darling, just hold my hand
Be my girl, I’ll be your man
I see my future in your eyes
Baby, I’m dancing in the dark, with you between my arms
Barefoot on the grass, listening to our favorite song
When I saw you in that dress, looking so beautiful
I don’t deserve this, darling, you look perfect tonight
Baby, I’m dancing in the dark, with you between my arms
Barefoot on the grass, listening to our favorite song
I have faith in what I see
Now I know I have met an angel in person
And she looks perfect
I don’t deserve this
You look perfect tonight


The company’s headquarters are now in modena, and its emblem is a trident. It has been owned by the Italian-American car giant Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) and FCA’s Italian predecessor Fiat S.p.A. since 1993. Maserati was initially associated with Ferrari S.p.A., which was also owned by FCA until being spun off in 2015, but more recently it has become part of the sports car group including Alfa Romeo and abharth (see section below). In May 2014, due to ambitious plans and product launches, Maserati sold a record of over 3,000 cars in one month. This caused them to increase production of the Quattroporte and Ghibli models.In addition to the Ghibli and Quattroporte, Maserati offers the Maserati GranTurismo, the GranTurismo Convertible, and has confirmed that it will be offering the Maserati Levante, the first Maserati SUV, in 2016, and the Maserati Alfieri, a new 2+2 in 2016. Maserati is placing a production output cap at 75,000 vehicles globally.





Chapter 102

I’m not gonna be your worthless punching bag Deku forever… Kacchan. I’m… I’m the Deku who always does his best!

Izuku Midoriya to Katsuki Bakugo in “Rage, You Nerd”

Izuku Midoriya (緑みどり谷や出いず久く Midoriya Izuku?), also known as Deku (デク?), is the protagonist of My Hero Academia.

Though born without a Quirk, he manages to catch the attention of the legendary hero All Might due to his innate heroism, and has since become his close pupil as well as a student in Class 1-A at U.A. High School. All Might passed on his Quirk to Izuku, making him the ninth holder of One For All.


One For All 20%
Izuku utilizing 20% of One For All.

One For All (ワン・フォー・オール Wan Fō Ōru?): Given to him from Toshinori Yagi, or, as he’s more commonly referred to as, All Might, Izuku’s Quirk gives him access to stockpiled power, granting him superhuman strength[4] and greatly enhanced agility and mobility by spreading his power through his body.[5][6]

Though he has yet to demonstrate superhuman speed, immense reflexes, and durability on the level of All Might, Izuku has shown to be able to properly control a small percentage of One For All’s power, using it to enhance his strength, speed, and agility. If Izuku does not keep One For All below his current limit of 20%, his body can be immensely damaged by the force of his movements. Izuku has also displayed a type of mental connection to the previous users of One For All.[7]

Recently, Izuku’s reflexes and speed have improved with the use of One For All, being able to hold his ground against various incoming attacks during the Provisional License exam. Izuku’s control of One For All has improved as his current maximum is 20% of One For All’s power while in Full Cowl, at the time of U.A’s Cultural Festival.[8]

The core of the quirk One For All, which was hidden within the stockpiled physical power of Izuku’s predecessors and had since had the quirk factors of the previous generations merged into it is continuously growing inside of him. Izuku will eventually manifest six other Quirks besides One For All. The known Quirks that Izuku has manifested so far are:

Blackwhip (黒鞭クロムチ Kuro Muchi?): The Quirk that had belonged to a bald One For All predecessor. It creates whips of black energy which can be used to grab objects from long distances, and can also allow the user to pull themselves towards said objects.


  • Detroit Smash (デトロイトスマッシュ Detoroito Sumasshu?): The same as All Might‘s move, except Izuku does it in the form of an uppercut.[9]
  • Delaware Smash (デラウエアスマッシュ Derauea Sumasshu?): Izuku flicks his finger to create a powerful wind pressure shock wave that has enough force to break large chunks of ice.[10] Due to using this attack at 100%, it fractures said finger, limiting the time he can use this move without gravely injuring himself up to ten times.[11]
One For All Full Cowl 3

One For All: Full Cowl.

  • One For All: Full Cowl (ワン・フォー・オール フルカウル Wan Fō Ōru Furu Kauru?): Through his training with Gran Torino, Izuku was able to unlock this stage of his power and get better control of his Quirk. This technique allows Izuku to activate 20% (previously 5% which was then improved to 8%) of One For All throughout his body, letting the power course and flow through him instead of concentrating it in one location. According to Izuku, this technique gives him greater maneuverability.[12] Activating this technique gives him enhanced strength, speed, mobility, and agility. It also prevents him from breaking his bones when attacking. The cost of using this technique reduces the damage of how much his attacks do since instead of centering the power into a certain area, Izuku spreads it throughout his body.[5][13]
    • 5% Detroit Smash (5 パーセント デトロイトスマッシュ 5 Pāsento Detoroito Sumasshu?): Izuku activates One for All: Full Cowl at 5% then jumps into the air and delivers an enhanced downward punch to the opponent.[14] He has also used this move in the form of a straight, forward facing punch.[15]
    • Delaware Smash Air Force (デラウエアスマッシュエアフォース Deraruea Sumasshu Eafosu?): Izuku uses his upgraded gloves that Mei Hatsume made for him to direct a blast of compressed air against his foe, possessing enough concussive force to stun Gentle while he was in mid-air, giving Izuku an opening to catch up to him.[16] By using all five of his fingers, he can launch up to four Delaware Smashes simultaneously.[17]
Izuku uses 100% on Muscular

A One For All Smash at 100%.

  • One For All 100%: A technique that allows Izuku to attack using the full power of One For All in the desired part of his body, with the cost of said body part breaking upon execution. Further usage of the same limb after an initial attack can cause scarring, as seen with his fights against Shoto (causing Izuku to get surgery on his right hand due to injuries) and Muscular (leaving multiple scars across his right arm).[18]
    • 100% Detroit Smash (100 パーセント デトロイトスマッシュ Hyaku Pāsento Detoroito Sumasshu?): This move involves Izuku activating One For All at 100% in his arm and then striking his target with a lunging punch.[19]
    • 1,000,000% Delaware Detroit Smash (1000000 パーセント デトロイトデラウエアスマッシュ 1000000 Pāsento Derauea Detoroito Sumasshu?): This move involves Izuku activating One For All at 100% during an adrenaline rush and then striking his opponent with a full-swing attack. When performing the move Izuku first uses a full-handed Delaware Smash, then delivers a devastating Detroit Smash. During the of his battle with Muscular, Izuku not only managed to overpower but launch his augmented opponent with enough force to create an impact crater in solid rock with the strike alone, thus defeating him.[19]
Full Cowl - Shoot Style

Shoot Style.

  • One For All: Full Cowl – Shoot Style (ワンフォーオール フルカウル シュートスタイル Wan Fō Ōru Furu Kauru Shūto Sutairu?): While using One For All: Full Cowl, Izuku uses a fighting style that focuses more on kicking.[20] Izuku concentrates One for All: Full Cowl’s effects in his torso and legs rather than his arms, allowing him to put out even more power due to the fact that the human leg muscles are naturally stronger than the human arm muscles, granting him enough power and stability and allowing him to step away from the shackles of having to imitate All Might.
    • Shoot Style: St. Louis Smash (シュートスタイルセントルイススマッシュ Shūto Sutairu Sento Ruisu Sumasshu?) While using the Shoot Style, Izuku leaps into the air and before swinging around to deliver a roundhouse kick to the opponent’s face. Izuku used this move to incapacitate Gentle Criminal, who had been empowered by La Brava’s Lover Mode Quirk to match Izuku’s use of One for All: Full Cowl at 8% of its power.[17]
  • One For All: Full Cowl – 20%: Izuku uses 20% of One for All’s full power and distributes it throughout his body, giving him an even greater power and speed boost. While it won’t cause his bones to break, it does put immense strain on Izuku’s body, causing him great pain to the point that it feels like his bones are on the verge of breaking.[21]
    • Manchester Smash (マンチェスタースマッシュ Manchesutā Sumasshu?): Izuku leaps into the air and flips forward to bring down an axe kick upon his opponent. Although Chisaki managed to dodge it, it pulverized the ground thoroughly enough that Chisaki wasn’t able to completely retaliate with his Overhaul Quirk.[22]
One For All Full Cowl - 100%

Izuku uses One For All: Full Cowl – 100%.

  • One For All 30%: A technique that allows Izuku to use 30% of One For All throughout his body. Due to it being used in conjunction with Melissa Shield‘s Full Gauntlet, which nullified any drawbacks to using One for All at higher percentages, it is unknown how this state affects Izuku’s body under normal conditions.
  • One For All: Full Cowl – 100% (ワン・フォー・オール フルカウル 100%パーセント Wan Fō Ōru Furu Kauru 100 Pāsento?): Izuku activates One For All to its fullest extent throughout in Full Cowl, granting him a tremendous boost in speed and strength that allowed him to easily overwhelm the likes of Kai Chisaki. This was first used against Chisaki to protect Eri. The power increase seemingly gives him fire-like trails coming from his eyes and light colored hair. He can currently only use it infinitely with no damage done to his body while in physical contact with Eri. Since Eri has the ability to rewind the state of a person’s body, any damage done to Izuku’s body by using One For All at 100% would continually be undone by Eri’s Quirk which proved useful in his fight with the villain.[23]


  • Costume Gamma (コスチュームγガンマ Kosuchūmu Ganma?): Following Izuku’s decision to change his combat to Shoot Style, Mei Hatsume upgrades his second costume. New additions consist of improved arm bracers that span the length of Izuku’s arm in order to prevent further damage to them and iron soles to increase his kicking power.[24]
    • Iron Soles: Created by Mei Hatsume, the Iron Armor Soles attached to Izuku’s signature red shoes. Upon kicking something, the soles absorb the impact and redistribute the kinetic energy back out to increase the impact strength of Izuku’s kicks.[25]
    • Air Force Gloves: Mei Hatsume gives Izuku a further upgrade to his costume with the addition of high tech support gloves.[26] They allow Izuku to utilize pressurized air created by Full Cowl and use it as projectiles by flicking his finger. [16]
  • Full Gauntlet (formerly): Created by Melissa Shield, it was given to Izuku after she figured out he was limiting his output of One For All during the faux villain course at I-Island Expo. The device allowed him to use his Quirk at higher percentages without the risk of self-injury. The gauntlet was later destroyed at the of Izuku and All Might’s fight against Wolfram.


  • (To All Might) “I have to work harder than anyone else to make it! I’ll never catch up otherwise…! I want to be like you…! Like you. The strongest hero.[28]
  • (To Katsuki Bakugo) “I’m not gonna be your worthless punching bag Deku forever… Kacchan. I’m… I’m the Deku who always does his best![29]
  • (To Shoto Todoroki) “Just trying to meet expectations! A smiling… dependable… cool hero… That’s what I wanna be! That’s why I’m giving it everything! For everyone! Your experiences… your determination… I can’t even begin to imagine what all that’s like… but… If you become number one without giving it your all… Then I don’t think you’re serious… about denying him everything! That’s why I have to win! I have to surpass you![30]
  • (To Tenya Iida) “I-I’ve got a lot to say to you, but… That’ll have to come later…! Because it’s like All Might said… Giving help that’s not asked for… is what makes a true hero![31]
  • (To All Might) “I’ll do my best! Whatever you say, All Might… I’ll step up to the challenge! As long as you’re by my side, I can do anything… That’s how I feel, anyway![32]
  • (To Kota Izumi) “If all the villains attacking tonight are on his level… everyone’s in trouble. And they might be after us students. I need to tell Mr. Aizawa and the wild wild Pussycats what I know. If my actions can save any of them… Then I’ve gotta do something.[33]


Deku counters Katsuki

Izuku possesses moderate combat skills and fundamental fighting knowledge from his years of hero studies.

Overall Abilities: Izuku’s greatest asset prior to receiving his Quirk was his vast knowledge of fundamental hero skills and tactics. Izuku studied pro heroes for years and is able to apply that knowledge during crisis situations in a practical manner. His immense bravery and desire to become a hero was also a key factor greatly in helping his ability to protect himself and others. Before gaining his Quirk from All Might, he took on the Sludge Villain and rescued Katsuki because of his boldness and applications of heroic skills.

All Might trained Izuku for months in order to get his body physically ready to inherit One For All, so he gained a muscular physique that allows him to perform at parameters higher than that of an average student outside U.A.’s hero course. After inheriting One For All from All Might, he was granted the ability to harness a stockpile of powerful energy. He could move faster than the eye can see and take down an enormous villain bot in a single punch. However, the physical backlash prevented Izuku from being able to fight properly or compete with his peers on an even playing field. Even so, he still possessed impressive physical durability, and his drive allowed him to withstand the drawbacks of One For All.

Despite the intense drawbacks of One For All, Izuku’s wits allowed him to use One For All in ways that were still effective in battle. He also retains his ability to act instinctively based on his notes and possesses basic hand to hand combat knowledge. This was shown when he was able to fight with Katsuki for a short time during the battle trial thanks to his knowledge and novice combat experience even though Katsuki is the superiorly talented student. Even more impressively, he overwhelmed Shoto in single combat because the latter was only using his ice. Even only using his right side, Shoto was the most promising student in Class 1-A at the time, but Izuku was able to force him to use his left side.

St. Louis Smash

Izuku improves to the point where he can defeat a real villain on his own.

Following his training with Gran Torino, Izuku gained more control over One For All and improved his overall skills greatly. While using One For All: Full Cowl, Izuku gains greatly enhanced maneuverability, strength, and a reduction in the physical backlash using his Quirk creates. This allows him to compete more closely with his classmates in the physical aspects of the Hero Course and even allows him to fight properly against villains like the Hero Killer. As his mastery over his Quirk improves, so do his practical skills. His bravery, resolve, and intelligence remain steadfast, pushing him to get stronger as well.

Izuku eventually develops his own unique fighting style in order to separate himself from All Might. This further propels Izuku’s skills to elite status. By their second fight, Izuku is able to fare much better against Katsuki. Even though Katsuki still held the advantage in physical traits and won, Izuku was able to injure him, showcasing his drastic improvement. By the time of the U.A. Cultural Festival, Izuku played a key part in defeating several capable villains like Overhaul and held his own against members of the League of Villains. He was even able to best Gentle Criminal in battle on his own after the villain was powered up by La Brava‘s Quirk.

Keen Intellect: Izuku has proven to be exceptionally intelligent on many occasions, displaying both keen observation and analysis as well as adept intuition and resourcefulness. It is usually his intelligence that has helped him more than his Quirk. Izuku is able to formulate strategies that take advantage of the situation and uses his knowledge to creatively utilize the Quirks of other people to their full potential, such as working together with Tsuyu Asui and Minoru Mineta to escape the villains at the flood zone in the USJ. Izuku also has extensive knowledge on Pro Heroes, his classmates and their Quirks, as well as he wrote them down in great detail in a notebook called Hero Analysis for the Future. Izuku’s intelligence has allowed him to figure out One For All’s mechanisms, allowing him to utilize the Quirk more efficiently in a short span of time. Gran Torino even compliments Izuku’s intelligence, saying that Izuku is the type of person who thinks before he acts. Izuku’s intelligence is so vast that it allowed him to rank fourth in the academic exams, which showed that all of his training doesn’t hinder his studies.[3] During Provisional Hero License Exam Arc, Izuku also deduced the strategies of the schools and correctly figured they would come after his class first after seeing the Sports Festival.

High Pain Tolerance: Izuku has shown in many occasions that he is able to handle and bear with a lot of pain, such times are mostly because of the repercussion of over-using his Quirk. However, he can still manage to move his body despite feeling excruciating pain, which was seen in his fights with Muscular and Katsuki.







Riverdale is an American teen drama television series based on the characters of Archie Comics. The series was adapted for The CW by Archie Comics’ chief creative officer Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, and is produced by Warner Bros. Televisionand CBS Television Studios, in association with Berlanti Productions and Archie Comics. Originally conceived as a feature film adaptation for Warner Bros. Pictures, the idea was re-imagined as a television series for Fox. In 2015, development on the project moved to The CW, where the series was ordered for a pilot. Filming takes place in VancouverBritish Columbia.

The series features an ensemble cast based on the characters of Archie Comics, with KJ Apa in the role of Archie AndrewsLili Reinhart as Betty CooperCamila Mendes as Veronica Lodge, and Cole Sprouse as Jughead Jones, the series’ narrator. The cast also features Madelaine Petsch as Cheryl BlossomAshleigh Murray as Josie McCoyCasey Cott as Kevin KellerCharles Melton and Ross Butler as Reginald “Reggie” Mantle and Vanessa Morgan as Toni Topaz. Other characters in the series include the parents of the main characters: Luke Perry as Fred AndrewsMädchen Amickas Alice CooperMarisol Nichols and Mark Consuelos as Hermione and Hiram Lodge, and Skeet Ulrich as FP Jones.

Along with heavily promoting the TV series in their regular comics since January 2017, Archie Comics are planning to release a comic book adaptation of Riverdale, featuring auxiliary story arcs set within the television series’ own continuity. The comic book adaptation is being headed by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa himself, along with various other writers from the show. Alongside a one-shot pilot issue, illustrated by Alitha Martinez, released in March 2017,[76] the first issue of the ongoing Riverdalecomic book series was set to release starting April 2017. 


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i phone xs max

e X (“X” pronounced “ten” /tɛn/)[9] is a smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on September 12, 2017, alongside the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park campus. The phone was released on November 3, 2017. This iPhone marks the device’s tenth anniversary, with “X” being the symbol for “ten” in Roman numerals.

The iPhone X is intended to showcase what Apple thinks is technology of the future, specifically adopting OLED screen technology for the first time in iPhone history, as well as using a glass and stainless-steel form factor, offering wireless charging, and removing the home button in favor of introducing Face ID, a new authentication method using advanced technologies to scan the user’s face to unlock the device, as well as for the use of animated emojis called Animoji. The new, nearly bezel-less form factor marks a significant change to the iPhone user interaction, involving swipe-based gestures to navigate around the operating system rather than the typical home button used in every previous iteration of the iPhone lineup. At the time of its November 2017 launch, its price tag of US$999 also made it the most expensive iPhone ever, with even higher prices internationally due to additional local sales and import taxes.

The iPhone X received mixed to positive reviews. Its display and build quality were universally praised, and the camera also scored positively on tests. The phone received particularly polarized reception due to the sensor housing “notch” at the top of the screen and the introduction of an all-new authentication method. The notch was heavily mocked by users on social media, although app developers responded either neutrally or positively to the changes it brought to the user experience in their apps and games. Reviewers had mixed reactions, with some condemning it and others acknowledging it as unusual in the first moments of use before getting accustomed to its presence. Face ID facial recognition was praised for its simple setup, but criticized for requiring direct eyes on the screen.

Additionally, Face ID has sparked a debate about security and privacy. Apple claims it is significantly more advanced than Touch ID, having far less false positives, though media reports have discussed the fact that Face ID and other biometric unlocking systems do not have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States. Face ID has shown mixed results when trying to separate identical twins, and the promise of enhanced security has been challenged by hackers and mask makers trying to infiltrate it; at least one of such attempts has been successful, though difficult to perform. Third-party app developers can also request access to “rough maps” of user facial data for their apps, causing concerns among privacy advocates despite rigid requirements by Apple of how developers handle facial data. Iphone 10 is really a great phone which can make our future more innovative and creative .