Pollution

Pollution has a cost.[23][24][25] Manufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole of society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own homes. A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production. A negative externality in production occurs “when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of others who are not compensated by the firm.”[26] For example, if a laundry firm exists near a polluting steel manufacturing firm, there will be increased costs for the laundry firm because of the dirt and smoke produced by the steel manufacturing firm.[27] If external costs exist, such as those created by pollution, the manufacturer will choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the manufacturer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved. If there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. However, goods and services that involve negative externalities in production, such as those that produce pollution, tend to be over-produced and underpriced since the externality is not being priced into the market.[26]

Pollution can also create costs for the firms producing the pollution. Sometimes firms choose, or are forced by regulation, to reduce the amount of pollution that they are producing. The associated costs of doing this are called abatement costs, or marginal abatement costs if measured by each additional unit.[28] In 2005 pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs in the US amounted to nearly $27 billion.[29]

Socially optimal level of pollution

Sources and causes

Pollution has a cost.[23][24][25] Manufacturing activities that cause air pollution impose health and clean-up costs on the whole of society, whereas the neighbors of an individual who chooses to fire-proof his home may benefit from a reduced risk of a fire spreading to their own homes. A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production. A negative externality in production occurs “when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of others who are not compensated by the firm.”[26] For example, if a laundry firm exists near a polluting steel manufacturing firm, there will be increased costs for the laundry firm because of the dirt and smoke produced by the steel manufacturing firm.[27] If external costs exist, such as those created by pollution, the manufacturer will choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the manufacturer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved. If there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. However, goods and services that involve negative externalities in production, such as those that produce pollution, tend to be over-produced and underpriced since the externality is not being priced into the market.[26]

Pollution can also create costs for the firms producing the pollution. Sometimes firms choose, or are forced by regulation, to reduce the amount of pollution that they are producing. The associated costs of doing this are called abatement costs, or marginal abatement costs if measured by each additional unit.[28] In 2005 pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs in the US amounted to nearly $27 billion.[29]

Socially optimal level of pollution

Sources and causes

India

  1. India (IASTBhārat), also known as the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[19][e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[f] ChinaNepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailandand Indonesia.
    Republic of India

    Bhārat Gaṇarājya
    Motto: Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)
    “Truth Alone Triumphs”[1]
    Anthem: Jana Gana Mana (Hindi)[2]
    “Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People”[3][2]

    National song
    Vande Mataram (Sanskrit)
    “I Bow to Thee, Mother”[a][1][2]
    Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.

Lakshmi

Lakshmi (/ˈlʌksmi/Tamil: இலட்சுமி , IASTlakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.[1][5] She is the wife and shakti (energy) of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition.[4] With Parvati and Saraswati, she forms Tridevi, the holy trinity. Lakshmi is also an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples.[6]Lakshmi has also been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Tamils, and was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Hinduism.The Goddess Lakshmi in Hinduism: The goddess of abundance and fortune, Sri Lakshmi, reflected the accumulated wealth and financial independence of the Tamil monasteries.

Lakshmi
Goddess of Fortune, Wealth, Prosperity and Beauty[1]
goddess of wealth

Diya-lamp

Diya may refer to: Diya (lamp), a ghee/oil-based candle used particularly in ceremonies / worship Diya (Islam), an Islamic term for monetary compensation

Diwali

In the lead up to Diwali, celebrants will prepare by cleaning, renovating and decorating their homes and offices.[11] During the , revellers adorn themselves in their finest clothes, illuminate the interior and exterior of their homes with diyas (lamps and candles), offer puja (prayers) to Lakshmi – the goddess of prosperity and wealth,[note 1] light fireworks, partake in family feasts, where mithai(sweets) and gifts are shared. Diwali is also a major cultural event for the Hindu and Jain diaspora from the Indian subcontinent.[14][15][16]

The five day festival originated in the Indian subcontinent and is mentioned in early Sanskrit texts. The names of the festive days of Diwali, as well as the rituals, vary by region. Diwali is usually celebrated eighteen days after the Dussehra festival with Dhanteras, or the regional equivalent, marking the first day of the festival when celebrants prepare by cleaning their homes and laying floor decorations, such as rangoli.[17] The second day is Choti Diwali, or equivalent in north India, while for Hindus in the south of India it is Diwali proper. Western, central, eastern and northern Indian communities observe Diwali on the third day and the darkest night of the traditional month. In some parts of India, the day after Diwali is marked with the Goverdhan Puja and Diwali Padva, which is dedicated to the relationship between wife and husband. Some Hindu communities mark the last day as Bhai Dooj, which is dedicated to the bond between sister and brother,[18] while other Hindu and Sikh craftsmen communities mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and observe it by performing maintenance in their work spaces and offering prayers.[19][20]

Some other faiths in India also celebrate their respective festivals alongside Diwali. The Jains observe their own Diwali, which marks the final liberation of Mahavira,[21][22] the Sikhscelebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the release of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison,[23] while Newar Buddhists, unlike other Buddhists, celebrate Diwali by worshiping Lakshmi.[24][25] The festival of Diwali is an official holiday in Fiji,[26]Guyana,[27] IndiaMalaysia (except Sarawak),[28] MauritiusMyanmar,[29] Nepal,[30]Singapore,[31] Sri LankaSuriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.[32]

Crackers

Fireworks are a class of low explosivepyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics), a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are also regularly held at a number of places.

Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations.

Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion (skyrocket) or be shot into the air by a mortar (aerial shell).

New Year fireworks

The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, often pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored. A skyrocket is a common form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in warfare. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today’s commercial aerial display, and a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States. Such rockettechnology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets.

Fireworks were originally invented in medieval China in the 9th century to scare away evil spirits, a natural application of gunpowder, one of the Four Great Inventions of ancient China. Such important events and festivities as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world. Colored fireworks were invented in Europe in the 1830s.[1] Modern skyrocket fireworks were invented in the early 20th century.[2]

India

India is a diverse country.People here talk many languages like Kannada, Tamil,Telugu,Hindi,Marathi, Punjabi etc.

Nature protection

It is very difficult to stop it from being polluted by us.So we have to make our surroundings clean by not usqinqg plastic bags and bottles and planting more plants. 

It should be clear

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Wikipedia
Parents: Putlibai Gandhi, Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Wikipedia
Parents: Putlibai Gandhi, Karamchand Gandhi