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The timings were from 9:00AM TO 12:00PM .

The standards were from 5 TO 8.

Many projects were of VOLCANO ERUPTIONS [ expirements]

The other projects were









  9. .

and many more

I was a part of that exhibition


The exhibition students were explaining all things in DETAIL…..  with WORKING MODEL…..


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  • Radio owes its development to two other inventions: the telegraph and the telephone. All three technologies are closely related. Radio technology actually began as “wireless telegraphy.”

    The term “radio” can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content playing from it. In any case, it all started with the discovery of “radio waves” or electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air.

  • Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts and more.
  • During the 1860s, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwellpredicted the existence of radio waves. In 1886, German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves, similar to those of light and heat.

    In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated “wireless telegraphy.” Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move. This marked the first known instance of wireless aerial communication.

    But it was Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, who proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899, he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter “S,” which was telegraphed from England to Newfoundland.

  • This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902.

    In addition to Marconi, two of his contemporaries, Nikola Tesla and Nathan Stufflefield, took out patents for wireless radio transmitters. Nikola Tesla is now credited with being the first person to patent radio technology. The Supreme Court overturned Marconi’s patent in 1943 in favor of Tesla’s.

Vijaya Patika

    • Edit

Vinaya Pitaka

The Vinaya Pitaka (Pali; English: Basket of Discipline) is a Buddhist scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka (literally. “Three Baskets“). The other two parts of the Tripitaka are the Sutta Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Its primary subject matter is the monastic rules for monks and nuns. The name Vinaya Pitaka (vinayapi aka) is the same in Pāli, Sanskrit and other dialects used by early Buddhists.


Scholarly consensus places the composition of the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya in the early centuries of the first millennium, though all the manuscripts and translations are relatively late.[1]

Surviving versionsEdit

Six versions survive complete, of which three are still in use.

  • The Pali version of the Theravada, included in the Pali Canon
    • Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga): commentary on the Patimokkha, with much of its text embedded
      • Mahavibhanga (mahā-) dealing with monks
      • Bhikkhunivibhanga (bhikkhunī-) dealing with nuns
    • Khandhaka: 22 chapters on various topics
    • Parivara: analyses the rules from various points of view
  • ‘Dul-ba, Tibetan translation of the Mulasarvastivada version; this is the version used in the Tibetan tradition
    • Vinayavastu: 16 skandhakas (khandhakas) and the start of the 17th
    • Pratimokshasutra of monks
    • Vinayavibhanga of monks
    • Pratimokshasutra of nuns
    • Vinayavibhanga of nuns
    • Vinayakshudrakavastu: rest of the 17th skandhaka and others
    • Vinayottaragrantha: appendices, including Upaliparipriccha, which corresponds to a chapter of the Parivara
  • The “Vinaya in Four Parts” (Chinese四分律pinyinShìfēnlǜWade–GilesSsŭ-fen lü) (Taisho catalogue number 1428). This is Chinese translation of the Dharmaguptaka version, and is the version used in the Chinese tradition and its derivatives in Korea, Vietnam and in Japan under the early Kokubunji temple system. In the case of Japan, this was later replaced with ordination based solely on the Bodhisattva Precepts.
    • Bhikshuvibhanga dealing with monks
    • Bhikshunivibhanga dealing with nuns.
    • Skandhaka
    • Samyuktavarga
    • Vinayaikottara, corresponding to a chapter of the Parivara
  • Shih-sung lü (T1435), translation of Sarvastivada version
    • Bhikshuvibhanga
    • Skandhaka
    • Bhikshunivibhanga
    • Ekottaradharma, similar to Vinayaikottara
    • Upaliparipriccha
    • Ubhayatovinaya
    • Samyukta
    • Parajikadharma
    • Sanghavasesha
    • Kusaladhyaya
  • Wu-fen lü (T1421), translation of Mahisasaka version
    • Bhikshuvibhanga
    • Bhikshunivibhanga
    • Skandhaka
  • Mo-ho-seng-ch’i lü 摩訶僧祇律 (T1425), translation of Mahasanghika version (the nuns’ rules have been translated by the late Professor Hirakawa in English as Monastic Discipline for the Buddhist Nuns, Patna, 1982)
    • Bhikshuvibhanga
    • Bhikshunivibhanga
    • Skandhaka

In addition, portions of various versions survive in various languages.


It was compiled at the First Council shortly after the Buddha‘s death, and recited by Upali, with little later addition. Most of the different versions are fairly similar, most scholars consider most of the Vinaya to be fairly early, that is, dating from before the separation of schools.[2]


The Pali version of the Patimokkha, the code of conduct that applies to Buddhist monastics, contains 227 rules for bhikkhusand 311 rules for bhikkhunis. The Vibhanga section(s) of Vinaya Pitaka constitute(s) a commentary on these rules, giving detailed explanations of them along with the origin stories for each rule. The Khandhaka/Skandhaka sections give numerous supplementary rules grouped by subject, again with origin stories. The Buddha called his teaching the “Dhamma-Vinaya”, emphasizing both the philosophical teachings of Buddhism as well as the training in virtue that embodies that philosophy.

In the collected Chinese editions of the Scriptures the Vinaya pitaka has a broader sense, including all four Chinese vinayas listed above, parts of others, non-canonical vinaya literature, lay vinaya and bodhisattva vinaya.

Place in the traditionEdit

According to the scriptures, in the first years of the Buddha’s teaching the sangha lived together in harmony with no vinaya, as there was no need, because all of the Buddha‘s early disciples were highly realized if not fully enlightened. As the sangha expanded situations arose which the Buddha and the lay community felt were inappropriate for samanas, or ascetics. According to tradition, the first rule to be established was the prohibition against acts. The origin story tells of an earnest monk whose family was distraught that there was no male heir and so persuaded the monk to impregnate his wife. All three, the monk, his wife and son who both later ordained, eventually became fully enlightened arahants.

The vinaya is very important to Buddhists –

“Whatever Dhamma and Vinaya I have pointed out and formulated for you, that will be your Teacher when I am gone.” (Mahaparinibbana Sutta, [D.16]).

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Vanessa R. Sasson Little Buddhas: Children and Childhoods in Buddhist Texts 2012 Page 46 “The Pāli Vinaya has been critically edited and translated in its entirety and will serve as a point of comparison with the Northern Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition that is the focus of this study. Dating the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya is problematic, since all the manuscripts and translations are relatively late.14 Scholarly consensus places it in the early / centuries of the first millenium. “
  2. ^ New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions, page 380


  • Davids, T. W. Rhys, Oldenberg, Hermann (joint tr): Vinaya texts, Oxford, The Clarendon press 1881. Vol.1 Vol.2Vol.3 Internet Archive

External linksEdit



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Hello , i am prachi gaur from class 7 and tiday i am going to post a comment on radio 

So let us begin with the blog

Actually what is a radio every body knows but in this blog i will make sure that you understand very properly …………………….

The transmission and reception of electromagnetic wave of     radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages is      called a radio .

The activity or industry of broadcasting sound programes to       the public.

Communicate or send a message by radio .

Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude,  frequency,   phase, or  pulse width When radio waves strike an electrical conductor,  the oscillating fields induce an alternating  current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form .




Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation.                                                                                                                              In the space of just 20 years, we have gone from the dawn of the internet age to an almost total dependence upon online technology. The personal data of a large section of the population is available through digital means. Social media has opened up entirely new forms of interaction no longer governed.

Computer technology is expanding at a dizzying pace. Things that seemed like science fiction a few years ago – from artificial intelligence to cryptocurrencies – are now common place.

  The Silver State has a long history with public-private partnerships and regulation tweaks that have made it an early adopter and tester of new technologies. And with 5 G right around the corner, officials are already calling for increased investment and attention to the government’s role in the cities.

Latest Indian and International News on Companies in Software, Hardware, I T ES, B P O, Internet, Telecom and Software Associations such as Nass com. Also offers news and information on Technology Products, Products Launches, Consumer Gadgets Sales and Marketing and Product Reviews.

Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives.
Map of technology



Justin Drew Bieber (/ˈbbər/; born March 1, 1994) is a Canadian singer and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EPMy World, in late 2009. It was certified platinum in the U.S. He became the first artist to have seven songs from a debut record chart on the Billboard Hot 100.[5]Bieber released his first full-length studio albumMy World 2.0, in 2010. It debuted at or near number one in several countries, was certified triple platinum in the U.S., and contained his single “Baby“.

Following his debut album, he had his first headlining tour, the My World Tour, released the remix albums My Worlds Acoustic and Never Say Never – The Remixes—and the 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never. He released his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe, in November 2011, when it debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. Bieber released his third studio album, Believe, in 2012. Its single “Boyfriend” reached number one in Canada. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in November 2015, spawning three number one singles: “What Do You Mean?“, “Sorry“, and “Love Yourself“. Following the release of Purpose, Bieber was featured on several successful collaborations, including “Cold Water“, “Let Me Love You“, “Despacito (Remix)“, and “I’m the One“. His U.S. album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 140 million records, making him one of the world’s best-selling music artists, and became the second person to reach 100 million followers on Twitter in August 2017 after Katy Perry.

Bieber has won numerous awards throughout his career, including the American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012, a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song “Where Are Ü Now” at the 2016 ceremony, and a Latin Grammy Award for Best Urban Fusion/Performance for the remix of Despacito at the 2017 ceremony. He has been listed four times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, in 2011, 2012, and 2013. In 2016, Bieber became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo.


Charles Otto Puth Jr. (/pθ/; born December 2, 1991) is an American singer, songwriter and record producer. Puth’s initial exposure came through the viral success of his song videos uploaded to YouTube.

See You Again” was released as Puth’s debut single in 2015, which he co-wrote, co-produced, and performed with Wiz Khalifa for the Furious 7 soundtrack as a tribute to Paul Walker, it peaked at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 for 12 non-consecutive weeks. After the success of “See You Again”, he subsequently gained worldwide recognition for multiple subsequent releases, including his debut single “Marvin Gaye“, which featured vocals from Meghan Trainor. The song topped charts in New Zealand, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

Puth’s debut studio album, Nine Track Mind, was released in January 2016, and was preceded by the singles “One Call Away” and “We Don’t Talk Anymore“, which peaked at number 12 and number 9 respectively on the US Billboard Hot 100.

In 2017, he released his new singles “Attention” and “How Long” from his upcoming album, Voicenotes. “Attention” peaked at number 5 on Billboard Hot 100.


The Chainsmokers is an American DJ and production duo consisting of Alex Pall and Andrew Taggart. The EDMpop duoachieved a breakthrough with their 2014 song “#Selfie“, which was a top twenty single in several countries. Their debut EP, Bouquet was released in October 2015 and featured the single “Roses“, which reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100. “Don’t Let Me Down” became their first top 5 single there and won the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording at the 59th awards ceremony, while “Closer” became their first number-one single on the chart. They have also won two American Music Awards and five iHeartRadio Music Awards. The duo’s second EP Collage was released in November 2016, succeeded by the release of their debut studio album, Memories…Do Not Open, in April 2017.






The number of recognized classical dances range from eight to more, depending on the source and scholar. The Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes eight – BharatanatyamKathakKuchipudiOdissiKathakaliSattriyaManipuri and Mohiniyattam Scholars such as Drid Williams add ChhauYakshagana and Bhagavata Mela to the list. The Culture Ministry of the Government of India includes Chhau in its classical list. These dances are traditionally regional, all of them include music and recitation in local language or Sanskrit, and they represent a unity of core ideas in a diversity of styles, costumes and expression. Indian classical dance is made from India and classical dance is played by various actors. But to teach classical dance to new people’s there are many much time required. Then new people’s can play classical dance in stage..


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Bharatanatyam or Bharathanatiyam  is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.Traditionally, Bharatanatyam has been a solo dance that was performed exclusively by women, and expressed South Indian religious themes and spiritual ideas, particularly of Shaivism, but also of Vaishnavism and Shaktism.

Bharatanatyam’s theoretical foundations trace to the ancient Sanskrit text by Bharata MuniNatya Shastra, its existence by 2nd century CE is noted in the ancient Tamil epic Silappatikaram, while temple sculptures of 6th to 9th century CE suggest it was a well refined performance art by mid 1st millennium CE.

 Bharatanatyam may be the oldest classical dance tradition of India.

Bharatanatyam style is noted for its fixed upper torso, legs bent or knees flexed out combined with spectacular footwork, a sophisticated vocabulary of sign language based on gestures of hands, eyes and face muscles. The dance is accompanied by music and a singer, and typically her guru is present as the director and conductor of the performance and art. The dance has traditionally been a form of an interpretive narration of mythical legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu texts  The performance repertoire of Bharatanatyam, like other classical dances, includes nrita (pure dance), nritya (solo expressive dance) and natya (group dramatic dance).

Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, was banned by the colonial British government in  the Indian community protested against the ban and expanded it outside the temples in the 20th century. Modern stage productions of Bharatanatyam have incorporated technical performances, pure dance based on non-religious ideas and fusion themes.

‘Kathakali’, an important genre in the Indian classical dance form, is associated with storytelling form of this art. It is the dance drama from the south Indian state of Kerala. Similar to other Indian classical dance arts, the story in ‘Kathakali’ is also communicated to audience through excellent footwork and impressive gestures of face and hands complimented with music and vocal performance.

However it can be distinguished from the others through the intricate and vivid make-up, unique face masks and costumes worn by dancers as also from their style and movements that reflect the age-old martial arts and athletic conventions prevalent in Kerala and surrounding regions. Traditionally performed by male dancers, it developed in courts and theatres of Hindu regions contrary to other Indian classical dances which predominantly developed in Hindu temples and monastic schools. Although not clearly traceable, this classical dance form is considered to have originated from temple and folk arts that trace back to 1st millennium CE or before.

Kuchipudi, a pre-eminent Indian classical dance form counted among ten leading classical dance forms of India, is a dance-drama performance art that originated in a village of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Similar to all leading Indian classical dance forms, Kuchipudi too evolved as a religious art rooting back to the age-old Hindu Sanskrit text ‘Natya Shastra’ and connects traditionally with temples, spiritual faiths and travelling bards. This ancient dance form finds place in the 10th century copper inscriptions and in 15th century texts like ‘Machupalli Kaifat’. Traditionally it is regarded that the sanyassin of Advaita Vedanta sect, Tirtha Narayana Yati, and his disciple Siddhendra Yogi initiated, methodized and arranged the present day version of the dance form in 17th century. Usually performance repertoire of Kuchipudi that is broadly oriented on Lord Krishna and the tradition of Vaishnavism include an invocation, dharavu – short dance, nritta – pure dance and nritya – expressive Image result for kuchipudidance respectively……   
There are more  dances of our culture……..

My Favourite Sports Person

My favourite sports person is SAINA 

  • She was born on 17 March 1990 in isar, aryana india
  • She is an Indian professional badminton  singles player.
  • Nehwal, the former world no. 1 has won over twenty three international titles, which include ten Superseries titles. Although she reached the world no.
  • Newal hahieved several milestones in bad for India. She is the only Indian thave won at least a medal in every BWF major individual event  namely the Olympi
  • The BF World Champions , and the BWF World Junior Championship






This breed is very light in weight it is 1 to 2 as an adult.

The Chihuahua, a companion dog of diminutive size, has been known as the Chihuahua Kortaar, the Smooth-coat Chihuahua, the Chihuahua Langhaar and the Longcoat Chihuahua. It also has been called the Mexican Dwarf Dog, the Ornament Dog, the Raza Fina and the Pillow Dog. Chihuahuas have a plucky, almost terrier-like temperament that serves as an effective alarm system. They are alert, bold, feisty little dogs with saucy expressions and playful dispositions. Chihuahuas are most famous for their tiny stature, which arguably makes them the perfect portable “purse dog” or “pocket pet.” They should not be underestimated because of its size. This is a highly intelligent and athletic breed. Chihuahuas that are not properly socialized can become snappy towards children and strangers, and their delicate structure requires special attention so that they are not injured by jumping off of high places or being hurt by rambunctious children. The Chihuahua was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1904, as a member of the Toy Group. They are consistently ranked among the top ten in popularity of breeds recognized by the American Kennel Club.

Image result for images of chihuahua