Science- Animals

Our world is filled with thousands upon thousands of different animals. There are many things we already know about most animals, but we have yet to learn about some of them.





animals in forest. EPS10 File - simple Gradients, no Effects, no mesh, no Transparencies.All in separate group for easy editing.



Our Earth 

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life.

According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago.

Earth’s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth’s only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.

Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet’s surface.[27] The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earth’s orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation.[28] Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets.

Earth’s lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth’s surface is covered with water, mostly by oceans.[29] The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earth’s polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth’s interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth’s magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.

Within the first billion years of Earth’s history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth’s atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth’s distance from the Sun, physical properties, and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive.[30][31] In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species[32] that ever lived on Earth are extinct.[33][34] Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely;[35][36][37] most species have not been described.[38] Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphereand natural resources for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures; politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states.









Artifical Intelligence

A Brief :-

Artificial intelligence or AI is intelligence displayed by machines, in contrast with the Natural Intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals. In Computer Science, AI research is defined as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term “Artificial Intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence :-

  • Military :
  • Pilot-less Drones: With Its AI, It can be controlled even from 1000’s of Kilometers!!!!!!!!!!
  • Decoding Of Foreign Languages.
  • Industry :
  • Manufacturing Of Cars: Car developer’s are reducing manpower and increasing the use of Robots which are programmed to do their specific task like assembly or paint etc.
  • Healthcare: Some Machines AI in Hospitals uses Algorithms and Software to approximate Human Cognition in the analysis of complex medical data.    
  • Gaming :
  • In Video Games, AI is used to generate Responsive, Adaptive or Intelligent Behaviors primarily in the game characters we see, similar to human-like intelligence.
  • Smartphones :
  • Better Security: Combined with Apple’s elaborate hardware, the iPhone X’s AI system works to Identify User’s face for Security.
  • Voice Assistants: Voice Assistants have been around for some time now. Siri, Google Assistant, Cortana   and Alexa are all Voice Assistants that use AI to identify what you say. According to what you speak, It will reply you with a Appropriate answer.
  • AI In Cameras: Today, the online retailer’s business subsidiary, Amazon Web Services (AWS), unveiled a suite of new products to help with this goal. Chief among them is a $250 AI-powered camera called DeepLens; a new platform for developing and deploying machine learning algorithms named SageMaker; and services for AI-powered transcription and translation.

Future Of Artificial Intelligence :-

  • Researchers think that AI will Improve A Lot in the Future. More different types of Programs for Different stuff in the Future.

Some also say that AI working Programs and Robots will replace us by our Jobs!!!!!!!!!!!!  =)


Subatomic particles

Subatomic Particles 

  • Subatomic particle, also called elementary particle, any of various self-contained units of matter or energy that are the fundamental constituents of all matter. Subatomic particles include electrons, the negatively charged, almost mass less particles that nevertheless account for most of the size of the atom, and they include the heavier building blocks of the small but very dense nucleus of the atom, the positively charged protons and the electrically neutral neutrons.
  • But these basic atomic components are by no means the only known subatomic particles.
  • Protons and neutrons, for instance, are themselves made up of elementary particles called quarks, and the electron is only one member of a class of elementary particles that also includes the neutrino.
  • More-unusual subatomic particles—such as the positron, the antimatter counterpart of the electron—have been detected and characterized in cosmic ray interactions in Earth’s atmosphere.
  • The field of subatomic particles has expanded dramatically with the construction of powerful particle accelerators to study high-energy collisions of electrons, protons, and other particles with matter.
  • As particles collide at high energy, the collision energy becomes available for the creation of subatomic particles such as mesons and Hyperons.
  • Finally, completing the revolution that began in the early 20th century with theories of the equivalence of matter and energy, the study of subatomic particles has been transformed by the discovery that the actions of forces are due to the exchange of “force” particles such as photons and gluons.
  • More than 200 subatomic particles have been detected—most of them highly unstable, existing for less than a millionth of a second—as a result of collisions produced in cosmic ray reactions or particle accelerator experiments.
  • Theoretical and experimental research in particle physics, the study of subatomic particles and their properties, has given scientists a clearer understanding of the nature of matter and energy and of the origin of the universe.
  • The current understanding of the state of particle physics is integrated within a conceptual framework known as the Standard Model. The Standard Model provides a classification scheme for all the known subatomic particles based on theoretical descriptions of the basic forces of matter.

Basic Concepts Of Particle Physics

The divisible atom

  • The physical study of subatomic particles became possible only during the 20th century, with the development of increasingly sophisticated apparatuses to probe matter at scales of 10−15 metee and less (that is, at distances comparable to the diameter of the proton or neutron).
  • Yet the basic philosophy of the subject now known as particle physics dates to at least 500 BCE, when the Greek philosopher Leucippus and his pupil Democritus put forward the notion that matter consists of invisibly small, indivisible particles, which they called atoms.
  • For more than 2,000 years the idea of atoms lay largely neglected, while the opposing view that matter consists of four elements—earth, fire, air, and water—held sway.

  • But by the beginning of the 19th century the atomic theory of matter had returned to favor, strengthened in particular by the work of John Dalton, an English chemist whose studies suggested that each chemical element consists of its own unique kind of atom.
  • As such, Dalton’s atoms are still the atoms of modern physics. By the close of the century, however, the first indications began to emerge that atoms are not indivisible, as Leucippus and Democritus had imagined, but that they instead contain smaller particles.

  • The basic structure of the atom became apparent in 1911, when Rutherford showed that most of the mass of an atom lies concentrated at its centre, in a tiny nucleus. Rutherford postulated that the atom resembled a miniature solar system, with light, negatively charged electrons orbiting the dense, positively charged nucleus, just as the planets orbit the Sun.
  • The Danish theorist Niels Bohrrefined this model in 1913 by incorporating the new ideas of quantization that had been developed by the German physicist Max Planck at the turn of the century.
  • Planck had theorized that electromagnetic radiation, such as light, occurs in discrete bundles, or “quanta,” of energy now known as photons.
  • Bohr postulated that electrons circled the nucleus in orbits of fixed size and energy and that an electron could jump from one orbit to another only by emitting or absorbing specific quanta of energy
  •  By thus incorporating quantization into his theory of the atom, Bohr introduced one of the basic elements of modern particle physics and prompted wider acceptance of quantization to explain atomic and subatomic phenomena.
Rutherford atomic modelRutherford atomic model Diagram of the Rutherford atomic model. Physicist Ernest Rutherford envisioned the atom as a miniature solar system, with electrons orbiting around a massive nucleus, and as mostly empty space, with the nucleus occupying only a very small part of the atom. The neutron had not been discovered when Rutherford proposed his model, which had a nucleus consisting only of protons .Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Size                                                                                                                  Subatomic particles play two vital roles in the structure of matter.

They are both the basic building blocks of the universe and the mortar that binds the blocks. Although the particles that fulfill these different roles are of two distinct types, they do share some common characteristics, foremost of which is size.

  • The small size of subatomic particles is perhaps most convincingly expressed not by stating their absolute units of measure but by comparing them with the complex particles of which they are a part.
  • An atom, for instance, is typically 10−10 meter across, yet almost all of the size of the atom is unoccupied “empty” space available to the point-charge electrons surrounding the nucleus.
  • The distance across an atomic nucleus of average size is roughly 10−14 meter—only 1/10,000 the diameter of the atom.
  • The nucleus, in turn, is made up of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons, collectively referred to as nucleons, and a single nucleon has a diameter of about 10−15 meter—that is, about 1/10 that of the nucleus and 1/100,000 that of the atom.
  • (The distance across the nucleon, 10−15 meter , is known as a Fermi, in honor of the Italian-born physicist Enrico Fermi, who did much experimental and theoretical work on the nature of the nucleus and its contents.)

  • The sizes of atoms, nuclei, and nucleons are measured by firing a beam of electrons at an appropriate target.
  • The higher the energy of the electrons, the farther they before being deflected by the electric charges within the atom.
  • For example, a beam with an energy of a few hundred electron volts (eV) scatters from the electrons in a target atom.
  • The way in which the beam is scattered (electron scattering) can then be studied to determine the general distribution of the atomic electrons.
  • At energies of a few hundred mega electron volts (MeV; 106 eV), electrons in the beam are little affected by atomic electrons; instead, they the atom and are scattered by the positive nucleus.
  • Therefore, if such a beam is fired at liquid hydrogen, whose atoms contain only single protons in their nuclei, the pattern of scattered electrons reveals the size of the proton.
  • At energies greater than a giga-electron volt (GeV; 109 eV), the electrons within the protons and neutrons, and their scattering patterns reveal an inner structure.
  • Thus, protons and neutrons are no more indivisible than atoms are; indeed, they contain still smaller particles, which are called quarks.

  • Quarks are as small as or smaller than physicists can measure.
  • In experiments at very high energies, equivalent to probing protons in a target with electrons accelerated to nearly 50,000 GeV, quarks appear to behave as points in space, with no measurable size; they must therefore be smaller than 10−18 meter, or less than 1/1,000 the size of the individual nucleons they form.
  • Similar experiments show that electrons too are smaller than it is possible to measure.

Tampa, Florida

Tampa, Florida:

Tampa (/ˈtæmpə/)[11] is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.[12] It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, and is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census,[5] and an estimated population of 377,165 in 2016.[13]

Archaeological evidence indicates the shores of Tampa Bay were inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. TheSafety Harbor culture developed in the area around the year 1000 AD, and the descendant Tocobaga and Pohoy chiefdoms were living in or near the current city limits of Tampa when the area was first visited by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Interactions between native peoples and the Spanish were brief and often violent, and although the newcomers did not stay for long, they introduced European diseases which brought the collapse of native societies across the Florida peninsula over the ensuing decades. Although Spain claimed all of Florida and beyond as part of New Spain, it did not found a colony on the west coast. After the disappearance of the indigenous populations, there were no permanent settlements in the Tampa Bay area until after the United States acquired Florida from Spain in 1821.

In 1824, the United States Army established a frontier outpost called Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River, near the site of today’s Tampa Convention Center downtown. The first civilian residents were pioneer ranchers and farmers who settled near the fort for protection from the nearby Seminole population.

The town grew slowly, and had become a minor shipping port for cattle and citrus by the time of the United States Civil War. Tampa Bay was blockaded by the United States Navy during the war, and Tampa fell into a long period of economic stagnation that continued long after the war ended.

The situation finally improved in the 1880s, when the first railroad links, the discovery of phosphate, and the arrival of the cigar industry jump-started its development, helping Tampa to grow from an isolated village with less than 800 residents in 1880 to a bustling city of over 30,000 by the early 1900s.

Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most commonly referred to as the “Tampa Bay Area”. For U.S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The four-county area is composed of roughly 2.9 million residents,[4] making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the state, and the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Miami, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta.[14] The Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and generally includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas.

The Tampa Bay Partnership and U.S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of approximately 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007.[15] A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people.[16]

A 2004 survey by the New York University newspaper Washington Square News ranked Tampa as a top city for “twenty-somethings.”[17]

In 2008, Forbes ranked Tampa as America’s fifth best outdoor city.[18]

A 2009 Pew Research Center study ranked Tampa as the fifth most popular American city, based on where people want to live.[19]

In 2016, Loughborough University ranked Tampa as a “Gamma” world city, alongside Phoenix, Austin, Cincinnati, Lausanne, andHarare.[20]

In 2015, Tampa was rated the best big city to live in within the Southeastern United States by Money Magazine.[21]

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