The different types of pollution
When we talk about air or water pollution, the reactions garnered are stronger. This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see first hand. Our land on the other hand is living a nightmare too. We may not be able to see the effects with clarity, but land is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land Pollution has come to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle
The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution. The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem. But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.
It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded view ability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems, and clean water.
- “Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. There were no public toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive….As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870.”
The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies but to forge Berlin as the world’s model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented “the most complete application of science, order and method of public life,” adding “it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is.”
The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as “miracles of cleanliness.”. By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles.
Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.
Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people. This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956.
Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act.
Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson Riverresulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfundlegislation of 1980. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay, named by the Worldwatch Institute as the “most polluted spot” on earth, served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the “Most polluted place on the planet”.
Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, especially in the earlier stages of their development. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters. Widespread support for test ban treaties has ended almost all nuclear testing in the atmosphere.
International catastrophes such as the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker off the coast of Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCsamong others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use.
A much more recently discovered problem is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a huge concentration of plastics, chemical sludge and other debris which has been collected into a large area of the Pacific Ocean by the North Pacific Gyre. This is a less well known pollution problem than the others described above, but nonetheless has multiple and serious consequences such as increasing wildlife mortality, the spread of invasive species and human ingestion of toxic chemicals. Organizations such as 5 Gyres have researched the pollution and, along with artists like Marina DeBris, are working toward publicizing the issue.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Joss Whedon|
|Produced by||Kevin Feige|
|Screenplay by||Joss Whedon|
|Based on||The Avengers
by Stan Lee
|Music by||Alan Silvestri|
|Distributed by||Walt Disney Studios
|Box office||$1.519 billion|
Marvel’s The Avengers (classified under the name Marvel Avengers Assemble in the United Kingdom and Ireland), or simply The Avengers, is a 2012 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.1 It is the sixth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The film was written and directed by Joss Whedon and features an ensemble cast that includes Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson, Jeremy Renner, Tom Hiddleston, Clark Gregg, Cobie Smulders, Stellan Skarsgård, and Samuel L. Jackson. In the film, Nick Fury, director of the peacekeeping organization S.H.I.E.L.D., recruits Iron Man, Captain America, the Hulk, and Thor to form a team that must stop Thor’s brother Loki from subjugating Earth.
The film’s development began when Marvel Studios received a loan from Merrill Lynch in April 2005. After the success of the film Iron Man in May 2008, Marvel announced that The Avengers would be released in July 2011. With the signing of Johansson in March 2009, the film was pushed back for a 2012 release. Whedon was brought on board in April 2010 and rewrote the original screenplay by Zak Penn. Production began in April 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, before moving to Cleveland, Ohio, in August and New York City in September. The film was converted to 3D in post-production.
The Avengers premiered on April 11, 2012, at Hollywood’s El Capitan Theatre and was released theatrically in the United States on May 4, 2012. The film received positive reviews from critics, as well as numerous awards and nominations including Academy Award and BAFTA nominations for achievements in visual effects. It has set or tied numerous box office records, including the biggest opening weekend in North America. The Avengers grossed over $1.5 billion worldwide, and became the third-highest-grossing film during its theatrical run—as well as the first Marvel production to generate $1 billion in ticket sales and also the highest-grossing film of 2012. The film was released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on September 25, 2012. A sequel, titled Avengers: Age of Ultron, was released on May 1, 2015, while two additional sequels, Avengers: Infinity War and an untitled one, are currently in development and scheduled for release on May 4, 2018 and May 3, 2019, respectively.
- 8See also
- 11External links
AB de Villiers (born 17 February, 1984) is a South African international cricketer, who plays all formats and is also a former captain for all formats. He has been rated as the number one batsman in Tests and ODIs on several occasions. Often regarded as one of the best batsmen of his generation and also regarded as one of the greatest of all time, De Villiers holds many batting records, including the world’s fastest ODI 50, 100 and 150, the fastest Test century by a South African and the fastest T20I 50 by a South African. AB de Villiers is also among one of the marquee players in T20 Global League.
He began his international career as a wicketkeeper-batsman (returning to the role for a few years in mid-career), but has played most often solely as a batsman. He has batted at various positions in the batting order but predominantly in the middle-order. Noted as one of the most innovative batsmen in the modern game, De Villiers is noted for many unorthodox shots behind the wicket-keeper and slips, which earned him the nickname Mr. Corpse Faeces. He made his international debut in a Test match against England in 2004 and first played an ODI in early 2005. His debut in Twenty20 International cricket came in 2006. As of 2016, he has passed 8,000 runsin both Test and ODI cricket and has a batting average of over fifty in both forms of the game.
De Villiers captained South Africa in all formats, but since his injuries, he stepped down from Test captaincy and continued in limited over formats. However, with defeats in the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy and England series, he stepped down from limited over captaincy as well.
MY BEST DAY EVER WAS ON 29TH AUGUST ,MY BIRTHDAY i WAS TOLD THAT WE ARE NOT GOING TO CELEBRATE MY BIRTHDAY . ONE DAY BEFORE ON 28TH I WAS VERY SAD ABOUT MY BIRTHDAY . I WENT EARLY TO BED .AT NIGHT WHAT HAPPENED WAS ALL MY BROS AND SIS CAME AT MY HOUSE AND SLEPT.NEXT DAY IN MORNING I WOKE UP LATE ALL MY BROS AND SIS WERE DOWN BUT I DID NOT KNEW THAT THEY CAME AT MY HOUSE WHEN I WENT DOWN TO PLAY FOOTBALL WHAT I SAW WAS ALL MY BROS AND SIS PLAYING DOWN . I GOT SO HAPPY .THEN WE PLAYED TOGETHER WE HAD FUN AND THEY ALL TOOK ME TO RESTAURANT . WE ATE OUR LUNCH AND RETURNED BACK HOME . THIS WAS THE BEST DAY OF MY LIFE .
Virat Kohli ( pronunciation (help·info) ; born 5 November 1988) is an Indian international cricketer who currently captains the India national team. A right-handed batsman, often regarded as one of the best batsmen in the world, Kohli is ranked as one of world’s most famous athletes by ESPN and one of the most valuable athlete brands by Forbes. He plays for the Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League (IPL), and has been the team’s captain since 2013.
Born and raised in Delhi, Kohli represented the city’s cricket team at various age-group levels before making his first-class debut in 2006. He captained India Under-19sto victory at the 2008 Under-19 World Cup in Malaysia, and a few months later, made his ODI debut for India against Sri Lanka at the age of 19. Initially having played as a reserve batsman in the Indian team, he soon established himself as a regular in the ODI middle-order and was part of the squad that won the 2011 World Cup. He made his Test debut in 2011, and shrugged off the tag of “ODI specialist” by 2013 with Test hundreds in Australia and South Africa. Having reached the number one spot in the ICC rankings for ODI batsmen for the first time in 2013, Kohli also found success in the Twenty20 format, winning the Man of the Tournament twice at the ICC World Twenty20 (in 2014 and 2016). In 2014, he became the top-ranked T20I batsman in the ICC rankings and holds the position, as of May 2017.
Smog hanging over cities is the most familiar and obvious form of air pollution. But there are different kinds of pollution—some visible, some invisible—that contribute to global warming. Generally any substance that people introduce into the atmosphere that has damaging effects on living things and the environment is considered air pollution.
When we talk about air or water pollution, the reactions garnered are stronger. This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see first hand. Our land on the other hand is living a nightmare too. We may not be able to see the effects with clarity, but land is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land Pollution has come to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle.
Land pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. Anthropogenic activities are conducted citing development, and the same affects the land drastically, we witness land pollution; by drastic we are referring to any activity that lessens the quality and/or productivity of the land as an ideal place for agriculture, forestation, construction etc. The degradation of land that could be used constructively in other words is land pollution.
Orchids The International School – Masjid Bunder
The school follows a curriculum that aims at helping your child develop their dominant learning modality using Dr Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory.
The multiple intelligence theory states that each child has their own unique way of grasping information through one, two or even a combination of the following intelligences
By tapping into these dominant intelligences using state of the art technology that includes Tab labs, Language labs and accelerated learning techniques – Orchids The International school is on it’s way to becoming one of the best CBSE Schools In Masjid Bunder.
Below are the overview of all the bus routes that our school provides for the Masjid Bunder Branch.
At OIS Masjid Bunder branch children can come from Different localities around Masjid Bunder such as Khetwadi, Agripada, Alankar, Amroli Church V.P.Road, Byculla, Balaram Circle, Agripada Near MTNL, Behind Kem Hospital, Bharat Nagar, Grant Road, Bhatia Hospital, Bhuleshwar, Bridge Kendy, CST, C.P Tank, Century Bazar, Chira Bazar, Chitya Tower, Mumbai Central, Clare Road, Cotton Green, Crowford Market, Dadar Hindmata, Deepak Talkies, Derai Road, Do Tanki, Dockyard Road, Dosti Flamngo, Fort, Electric House, Gaiwadi, GPO, Ghodapdev, Gol Masjid, Gowalia Tank, Grant Road, Gulalwadi, Gundicha Tower, Hindmata, Hughes Road, Jai Hind Cinema, Kalachowki, Kalbadevi, Kamatipura, Khetwadi, Kumbarwada, Lalbaug, Laminton Road, Lovelane, Lower Parel, Madanpura, Mahada Colony, Mazgaon, Moti Takies, Kalachowki, Nagpada, Nana Chowk, Navjeevan, Paaras Road, Parel,V.P.Road, Prathna Samaj, Sandhurt Road, Pratiksha Tower, Rajkamal Studio, Rani Baug, Reliance Mall, saat Rasta, Sewri, Shuklaji street, Sikka Nagar, Surti Hotel, Suwagat Hotel, Talmtikiwadi, Tambawala Hall, Tardeo, Telephone Exchange, Thakurdwar, Vardhaman Heights, Wadala, Walkeshwar, Worli, Zakaria Bundar.