Happy New Year

New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar’s year increments by one.

Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner and the 1st day of January is often marked as a national holiday .

In the , the most widely used calendar system today, New Year occurs on 1 January . This was also the case both in the Roman calendar and in the Julian calendar that succeeded it.

Other calendars have been used historically in different parts of the world; some calendars count years numerically, while others do not.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, authorities moved New Year’s Day, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, among them: 1 March, 25 March, Easter, 1 September, and 25 December. Beginning in 1582, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar and changes to the Old Style and New Style dates meant the various local dates for New Year’s Day changed to using one fixed date, January 1.

The widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar and marking January 1 as the beginning of a new year is almost global now. Regional or local use of other calendars continue, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In Latin America , various native cultures continue the observation of traditions according to their own calendars. Israel, China, India and other countries, continue to celebrate New Year on different dates.

The most common dates of modern New Year’s celebrations are listed below, ordered and grouped by their alignment relative to the Gregorian calendar .

                           Happy New Year 2018

Car

Car:

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods.[2][3] Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawncarriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.

Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. This causes air pollution and is also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.[4] Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008.

There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance.[5] The costs to society includemaintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.[6]

The benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and convenience.[7] The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the taxes. The ability for people to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.[8] It was estimated in 2014 that the number of cars was over 1.25 billion vehicles,[9] up from the 500 million of 1986.[10] The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.[11]

Etymology

The word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum (“wheeled vehicle”), or the Middle English word carre (meaning “two-wheel cart“, from Old North French). In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic chariot).[12][13] It originally referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon.[14][15] “Motor car” is attested from 1895, and is the usual formal name for cars in British English.[3] “Autocar” is a variant that is also attested from 1895, but that is now considered archaic. It literally means “self-propelled car”.[16] The term “horseless carriage” was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, and is attested from 1895.[17]

The word “automobile” is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós (αὐτός), meaning “self”, and the Latin word mobilis, meaning “movable”. It entered theEnglish language from French, and was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897.[18] Over time, the word “automobile” fell out of favour in Britain, and was replaced by “motor car”. “Automobile” remains chiefly North American, particularly as a formal or commercial term.[19] An abbreviated form, “auto”, was formerly a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned. The word is still very common as an adjective in American English, usually in compound formations like “auto industry” and “auto mechanic“.[20][21] The abbreviated form is also used in Dutch and German.

History

The first working steam-powered vehicle was designed—and most likely built—by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger.[7][22][23] It is not known if Verbiest’s model was ever built.[23]

Cugnot’s 1771 fardier à vapeur, as preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769; he created a steam-powered tricycle.[24] He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.[25] His inventions were, however, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure.[25] In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and was of little practical use.

The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car, but often treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses, phaetons, and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865.

In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was probably the world’s first internal combustion engine (which they called a Pyréolophore), but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France.[26] Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own ‘de Rivaz internal combustion engine‘ and used it to develop the world’s first vehicle to be powered by such an engine. The Niépces’ Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture ofLycopodium powder (dried spores of the Lycopodium plant), finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil, whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen andoxygen.[26] Neither design was very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by internal combustion engines.[1]

Gustave Trouvé‘s tricycle, the first ever electric automobile to be shown in public

Karl Benz, the inventor of the modern car

In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated the first working (three-wheeled) car powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity, Paris.[27] Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern car.[1]

The original Benz Patent-Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept

In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. His firstMotorwagen was built in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. He was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on 29 January 1886 (under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883). Benz began promotion of the vehicle on 3 July 1886, and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four- engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz car to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early cars, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. In August 1888 Bertha Benz, the wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first road trip by car, to prove the road-worthiness of her husband’s invention.

Bertha Benz, the first long distance driver

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called boxermotor. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest car company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and, because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company. The first motor car in central Europe and one of the first factory-made cars in the world, was produced by Czech company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau (later renamed to Tatra) in 1897, the Präsident automobil.

Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890, and sold their first car in 1892 under the brand name Daimler. It was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, which they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after disputes with their backers. Benz, Maybach and the Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other’s early work. They never worked together; by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set byEmil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG car was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine, which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their car models jointly, although keeping their respective brands. On 28 June 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its cars Mercedes Benz, as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG cars, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35 hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929, and at times his two sons also participated in the management of the company.

Émile Levassor

Armand Peugeot

In 1890, Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines, and so laid the foundation of theautomotive industry in France. In 1891, Auguste Doriot and his Peugeot colleague Louis Rigoulot completed the longest trip by a gasoline-powered vehicle when their self-designed and built Daimler powered Peugeot Type 3 completed 2,100 km (1,300 miles) from Valentigney to Paris and Brest and back again. They were attached to the first Paris–Brest–Paris bicycle race, but finished 6 days after the winning cyclist, Charles Terront.

The first design for an American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York. Selden applied for a patent for a car in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on 5 November 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent 549,160) for atwo- car engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of cars in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In 1893, the first running, gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tested by the Duryea brothers of Springfield, Massachusetts. The first public run of the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on 21 September 1893, on Taylor Street in Metro Center Springfield.[28][29] The Studebaker Automobile Company, subsidiary of a long-established wagon and coach manufacturer, started to build cars in 1897[30]:p.66 and commenced sales of electric vehicles in 1902 and gasoline vehicles in 1904.[31]

In Britain, there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success, with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[32] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first gasoline-powered car in the country in 1894,[33] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895, but these were both one-offs.[33] The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896, after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson’s company made its first car in 1897, and they bore the name Daimler.[33]

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a “New Rational Combustion Engine”. In 1897, he built the first diesel engine.[1]Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, onlyMazda‘s version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

Mass production

Ransom E. Olds founded Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile) in 1897

Henry Ford founded Ford Motor Company in 1903

Kiichiro Toyoda, president of the Toyota Motor Corporation 1941–1950

Mass production at a Toyota plant in the 1950s

Large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable cars was started by Ransom Olds in 1901 at his Oldsmobile factory in Lansing, Michigan and based upon stationary assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills, England, in 1802. The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S. by Thomas Blanchard in 1821, at the Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts.[34] This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1913 with the world’s first moving assembly line for cars at the Highland Park Ford Plant.

As a result, Ford’s cars came off the line in fifteen-minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold, while using less manpower (from 12.5-man-hours to 1 hour 33 minutes).[35] It was so successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan Black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1913, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. This is the source of Ford’s apocryphal remark, “any color as long as it’s black”.[35] In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months’ pay.[35]

Ford’s complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called “Fordism,” and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. The assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less productive methods.

In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native European manufacturer to adopt the production method. Soon, companies had to have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not, had disappeared.[35]

Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of small manufacturers competing to gain the world’s attention. Key developments included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering, for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910–1911), independentsuspension, and four-wheel brakes.

Since the 1920s, nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs, so marketing plans often have heavily influenced car design. It was Alfred P. Sloan who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company, called the General Motors Companion Make Program, so that buyers could “move up” as their fortunes improved.

Reflecting the rapid pace of change, makes shared parts with one another so larger production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. For example, in the 1930s, LaSalles, sold by Cadillac, used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile; in the 1950s, Chevrolet shared hood, doors, roof, and windows with Pontiac; by the 1990s, corporate powertrains and shared platforms (with interchangeablebrakes, suspension, and other parts) were common. Even so, only major makers could afford high costs, and even companies with decades of production, such as Apperson, Cole, Dorris, Haynes, or Premier, could not manage: of some two hundred American car makers in existence in 1920, only 43 survived in 1930, and with the Great Depression, by 1940, only 17 of those were left.[35]

In Europe, much the same would happen. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in 1924, and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford’s practice of vertical integration, buying Hotchkiss (engines), Wrigley (gearboxes), and Osberton (radiators), for instance, as well as competitors, such as Wolseley: in 1925, Morris had 41% of total British car production. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra, had gone under. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in 1919; between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renault‘s 10CV and Peugeot‘s 5CV, they produced 550,000 cars in 1925, andMors, Hurtu, and others could not compete.[35] Germany’s first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog), came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924, soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with 37.5% of the market.[35]

In Japan, car production was very limited before World War II. Only a handful of companines were producing vehicles in limited numbers, and these were small, three-wheeled for commercial uses, like Daihatsu, or were the result of partnering with European companies, like Isuzu building the Wolseley A-9 in 1922. Mitsubishi was also partnered with Fiatand built the Mitsubishi Model A based on a Fiat vehicle. Toyota, Nissan, Suzuki, Mazda, and Honda began as companies producing non-automotive products before the war, switching to car production during the 1950s. Kiichiro Toyoda’s decision to take Toyoda Loom Works into automobile manufacturing would create what would eventually becomeToyota Motor Corporation, the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. Subaru, meanwhile, was formed from a conglomerate of six companies who banded together as Fuji Heavy Industries, as a result of having been broken up under keiretsu legislation.

Fuel and propulsion technologies

The Nissan Leaf is an all-electric carlaunched in December 2010

Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the deflagration (rather than detonation) combustion of hydrocarbon fossil fuels, mostly gasoline (petrol) and diesel, as well as some Autogas and CNG. Hydrocarbon fuels cause air pollution and contribute to climate change and global warming.[4] Rapidly increasing oil prices, concerns about oil dependence, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for cars. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Cars for racing or speed records have sometimes employed jet or rocket engines, but these are impractical for common use.

Oil consumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been abundantly pushed by car growth; the 1985–2003 oil glut even fuelled the sales of low-economy vehicles in OECD countries. The BRIC countries are adding to this consumption; in December 2009 China was briefly the largest car market.[36]

User interface

In the Ford Model T the left-side hand lever sets the rear wheel parking brakes and puts the transmission in neutral. The lever to the right controls the throttle. The lever on the left of the steering column is for ignition timing. The left foot pedal changes the two forward gears while the centre pedal controls reverse. The right pedal is the brake.

Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, normally operated by a combination of the use of feet and hands, and occasionally by voice on 2000s-era cars. These controls include a steering wheel, pedals for operating the brakes and controlling the car’s speed (and, in a manual transmission car, a clutch pedal), a shift lever or stick for changing gears, and a number of buttons and dials for turning on lights, ventilation and other functions. Modern cars’ controls are now standardised, such as the location for the accelerator and brake, but this was not always the case. Controls are evolving in response to new technologies, for example theelectric car and the integration of mobile communications.

Since the car was first invented, its controls have become fewer and simpler through automation. For example, all cars once had a manual controls for the choke valve, clutch, ignition timing, and a crank instead of an electric starter. However new controls have also been added to vehicles, making them more complex. Examples include air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Another trend is the replacement of physical knob and switches for secondary controls with touchscreen controls such as BMW‘s iDriveand Ford‘s MyFord Touch. Another change is that while early cars’ pedals were physically linked to the brake mechanism and throttle, in the 2010s, cars have increasingly replaced these physical linkages with electronic controls.

Lighting

Cars are typically fitted with multiple types of lights. These include headlights, which are used to illuminate the way ahead and make the car visible to other users, so that the vehicle can be used at night; in some jurisdictions, daytime running lights; red brake lights to indicate when the brakes are applied; amber turn signal lights to indicate the turn intentions of the driver; white-coloured reverse lights to illuminate the area behind the car (and indicate that the driver will be or is reversing); and on some vehicles, additional lights (e.g., side marker lights) to increase the visibility of the car. Interior lights on the ceiling of the car are usually fitted for the driver and passengers. Some vehicles also have a trunk light and, more rarely, an engine compartment light.

Weight

The Smart Fortwo car from 1998-2002, weighing 730 kg (1,610 lb)

A Chevrolet Suburban extended-length SUV weighs 3,300 kg (7,200 lb) (gross weight)[37]

In the United States, “from 1975 to 1980, average [car] weight dropped from 1,842 to 1,464 kg (4,060 to 3,228 lb), likely in response to rising gasoline prices” and new fuel efficiency standards.[38] The average new car weighed 1,461 kg (3,221 lb) in 1987 but 1,818 kg (4,009 lb) in 2010, due to modern steel safety cages, anti-lock brakes, airbags, and “more-powerful—if more-efficient—engines.”[39]Heavier cars are safer for the driver, from an accident perspective, but more dangerous for other vehicles and road users.[39] The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance, with more weight resulting in increased fuel consumption and decreased performance. The SmartFortwo, a small city car, weighs 750–795 kg (1,655–1,755 lb). Heavier cars include full-size cars, SUVs and extended-length SUVs like the Suburban.

According to research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge, global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars, and an average weight of 500 kg (1,100 lb) has been said to be well achievable.[40] In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon, average car weights of 45 kg (99 lb) have also been achieved.[41][42] These cars are only single-seaters (still falling within the definition of a car, although 4-seater cars are more common), but they nevertheless demonstrate the amount by which car weights could still be reduced, and the subsequent lower fuel use (i.e. up to a fuel use of 2560 km/l).[43]

Seating and body style

Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants, often with four or five seats. Cars with five seats typically seat two passengers in the front and three in the rear. Full-size cars and large sport utility vehicles can often carry six, seven, or more occupants depending on the arrangement of the seats. On the other hand, sports cars are most often designed with only two seats. The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage or cargo space has resulted in the availability of a large variety of body styles to meet individual consumer requirements that include, among others, the sedan/saloon, hatchback, station wagon/estate, and minivan.

Safety

Result of a serious car accident

Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.[6] Mary Ward became one of the first documented car fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland,[44] and Henry Bliss one of the United States’ first pedestrian car casualties in 1899 in New York City.[45] There are now standard tests for safety in new cars, such as the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests,[46] and insurance-industry-backed tests by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).[47]

Worldwide, road traffic is becoming ever safer, in part due to efforts by the government to implement safety features in cars (e.g., seat belts, air bags, etc.), reduce unsafe driving practices (e.g., speeding, drinking and driving and texting and driving) and make road design more safe by adding features such as speed bumps, which reduce vehicle speed, and roundabouts, which reduce the likelihood of a head-on-collision (as compared with an intersection).

Costs and benefits

Road congestion is an issue in many major cities. (pictured is Chang’an Avenue in Beijing)[48]

The costs of car usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance,[5] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.[7] During the 1920s, cars had another benefit: “[c]ouples finally had a way to head off on unchaperoned dates, plus they had a private space to snuggle up close at the end of the night.”[49]

Similarly the costs to society of encompassing car use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, air pollution, road congestion, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that car use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of car production and maintenance, transportation provision, s

Football

Football:

Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the wordfootball is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called ‘football’ in certain places include: association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football(specifically American football or Canadian football); Australian rules footballrugby football (either rugby league or rugby union); and Gaelic football.[1][2] These different variations of football are known as football codes.

Various forms of football can be identified in history, often as popular peasant games. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the nineteenth century.[3][4] The expanse of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire.[5] By the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage.[6] In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world.[7]

Contents

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Common elements

The various codes of football share certain common elements: Players in American football, Canadian football, rugby union and rugby league take up positions in a limited area of the field at the start of the game.[8] They tend to use throwing and running as the main ways of moving the ball, and only kick on certain limited occasions. Body tackling is a major skill, and games typically involve short passages of play of 5–90 seconds.[8]

Association football and Gaelic football tend to use kicking to move the ball around the pitch, with handling more limited. Body tackles are less central to the game, and players are freer to move around the field (offside laws are typically less strict).[8]

Common rules among the sports include:[9]

  • Twoteams of usually between 11 and 18 players; some variations that have fewer players (five or more per team) are also popular.
  • A clearly defined area in which to play the game.
  • Scoringgoals or points by moving the ball to an opposing team’s end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line.
  • Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between twogoalposts.
  • The goal or line beingdefended by the opposing team.
  • Players being required to move the ball—depending on the code—by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball.
  • Players using only their body to move the ball.

In all codes, common skills include passingtackling, evasion of tackles, catching and kicking.[8] In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts.

Etymology

Main article: Football (word)

There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word “football”. It is widely assumed that the word “football” (or the phrase “foot ball”) refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball.[10] There is an alternative explanation, which is that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation.

Early history

Ancient games

A painting depicting Emperor Taizu of Songplaying cuju (i.e. Chinese football) with his prime minister Zhao Pu (趙普) and other ministers, by theYuan dynasty artist Qian Xuan (1235–1305)

The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as “ἐπίσκυρος” (Episkyros)[11][12] or “φαινίνδα” (phaininda),[13] which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215 AD). These ga

 

 

Environment

Environment

Environment is everything that is around us. It can be living or nonliving things. It includes physical, chemical and other natural forces. Living things live in their environment. They constantly interact with it and adapt themselves to conditions in their environment. In the environment there are different interactions between animals, plants, soil, water, and other living and non-living things.

Since everything is part of the environment of something else, the word ‘environment’ is used to talk about many things. People in different fields of knowledge (like history, geography or biology) use the word environment differently. Electromagnetic environment isradio waves and other electromagnetic radiation and magnetic fields. The galactic environment refers to conditions between the stars.[1]

In psychology and medicine a person’s environment is the people, physical things, places, and epornvents that the person lives with. The environment affects the growth and development of the person. It affects the person’s behavior, body, mind and heart.

Black Creek

 

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal:

The Taj Mahal (/ˌtɑː məˈhɑːl, ˌtɑːʒ-/;[3] meaning Crown of the Palace[4]) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned from 1628 to 1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre)[5] complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall.

Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (U.S. $827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.

The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”. Described by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore as “the tear-drop on the cheek of time”,[6][7] it is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India’s rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year. In 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.

The First Five Dimensions

We as humans often tend to wonder about the alternate dimensions that we might have in this vast universe. I have decided to share about some information that I have collected using various resources.

The First Dimension- A Line

  1. If you create another point, and make a line between the two points you have an object in the first dimension.
  2. It only has length, no width or depth.
  3. The First Dimension is the LINE. It contains an infinite number of points.
  4. Temporally, it represents the Future.

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The Second Dimension- Length and breadth

  1. The only location seen in this dimension is the 2nd Dimension Tri-State Area, which is ruled by The Second Dimension’s  Doofenschwirth’s family.
  2. The family patriarch 2nd Heinz enforced his family’s dictatorship by using his army of Norm-Bots and his new general Perry the Platyblorg.
  3. Due to his power, the Tri-State Area is modeled after 2nd Heinz and its citizens wear Dooferalls, clothing that is compulsory to wear.
  4. The 2nd Dimension seems to be more technologically advanced than its 1st Dimension counterpart, although said technology is used to keep people in check rather than benefiting its population.
  5. There is a group of people called The Resistance, which consists of the 2nd Dimension counterparts of Phineas and Ferb’s friends that fight against the Doofenshmirtz family’s dictatorship.

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The Third Dimension- length, breadth and height

  1. This is the  dimension in which we exist.
  2. The Third Dimension is where energy congeals into a dark, dense pool of matter. This is the plane of thought or mind. The densest stratum of this plane contains our own more worldly and material thoughts.
  3. Because of our Planetary coding/consciousness we are able to identify with matter and therefore become dense ourselves. The Universe allows the illusion of Free-Will on the Third and Fourth Dimensions which gives us the experience of acting like saints or demons or somewhere in between… by choice.
  4. Beings believing that the Third is the only Dimension suffer from the illusion of separation from their Spirit. The physical senses cannot detect Spirit which is beyond form. If we are not One with Spirit then we cannot be at one with others. This Dimension of Thought has the ability to interpenetrate all of life, like a sort of etheric river of water. It is not confined to the brain, which actually acts more like a kind of telephone switching station to all the thoughts that pass through it. Our ability to experience beauty while in such density, shows that we live in a loving Universe.
  5. That is why if we can contact the higher strata of the mind-world by training the corresponding parts of our brain, as all seekers have attempted to do, we shall gain inconceivable knowledge.
  6. The practice of Remote Viewing attempts to tap into this holographic practice. Humans possess a body made up of the material of the Physical Plane world…a body containing chemicals in liquid, solid and gaseous states. This body is interpenetrated by another body, which is its counterpart, known as the Etheric Body. It constitutes a fine web through which the Electromagnetic Life-forces are fed into the physical body from the outer Universe.

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The Forth Dimension- Time

  1. It start off with a single point. No width, no height, just a point. This is a one-dimensional construct,
  2. So how do we get from this to two dimensions? One easy step: extend the point outward, in both directions. Congratulations, you now have a line. This is a one-dimensional plane, and it includes every possible one-dimensional point. It has infinite length, but no width or height.
  3. Then we take that line and expand it outward in all directions to infinity. What do we have now? A two-dimensional plane, or a square. It contains every possible line, or in other words, every possible one-dimensional plane. It has length and width, but no height.
  4. Take the square and extend it upwards and downwards to infinity and you have a three-dimensional plane with length, width, and height. This contains every single possible instance of the second dimension.
  5. This is when it starts to get interesting. Since the fourth dimension is timelike, not spacelike, we take our three-dimensional plane and extend it out infinitely backwards and forwards across time. This four-dimensional construct contains every single state of our three-dimensional plane at every single point in the timeline, past or future, and it’s called a world line.
  6. Then we take our worldline and stretch it across every possible progression of time. This new five-dimensional construct holds every possible  world line, which means it holds every possible instance of this three-dimensional object in any timeline.

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The Fifth Dimension- The Gateway Of Realms

  1. Spiritually, starting from the beginning, it is the last stop downward on the dimensional ladder before we enter the realms of limitation. We incarnate here as androgynous stellar beings.
  2. Since we live on Stars we have luminous Light Bodies. These eternal forms have no need for pain, the warning signals that physical bodies provide. Therefore there is no physical suffering. Neither do we suffer from any form of separation because we constantly experience the Oneness of Mother/Father Creator.
  3. We base our actions entirely on Love, never fear. This is because fear does not exist at this level. We are unstoppable and living Miraculous lives. Immortality is an experiential given. Many times in a Near Death Experience, a person will travel thru a long tunnel. The tunnel traverses the darkness (the Fourth Dimension) and ends in a bright opening of Golden or White Light (the Fifth Dimension). This is the Birth Canal of the Soul and the doorway to Heaven.
  4. We travel by application of Divine Will. We need not die to have this experience. The shortest distance between two points is not a straight line or curved line. In the Fifth Dimension, one simply duplicates herself to her destination(s). We travel by moving through the doorway at the center of the star. We do not fly as this movement is similar to teleportation. Flying is only a viable means of transportation on the Third and Fourth Dimensions.
  5. In many Ascension stories, the Earth transforms… along with her inhabitants into her fifth-dimensional Light Body. This is when Gaia physically shifts from a dense, material body to one of Light… A Star. The present Earth changes and Ancient prophecies are guides to this probable future. However, the Fifth Dimensional Manifestation of a star is neither hot nor fiery… It is soft.

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So, these are the first five dimensions. Hope this was informative and you enjoyed reading. Thank you!

Global Warming

Global Warming

Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Sun’s energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate: humanity

How does this warming compare to previous changes in Earth’s climate? How can we be certain that human-released greenhouse gases are causing the warming? How much more will the Earth warm? How will Earth respond? Answering these questions is perhaps the most significant scientific challenge of our time.

What is Global Warming?

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years. Temperatures are certain to go up further.

MYSTERIES YET TO BE REVEALED

  1. . Sea Peoples

During the late Bronze Age, civilisation was progressing at an impressive rate in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean regions. Kingdoms rose, order was established, and technology advanced. The Mycenaean and Minoans had intricate palaces in Greece and Crete, the Hittites dominated what is now Turkey.

And the Canaanites controlled what would become the holy land — Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. But in the years surrounding 1200 B.C., all of the would change.

Over the course of a single generation, all of those civilisations would be almost entirely wiped off the map, and those that did survive would be set back a thousand years, losing the ability to write and turning back the clock on the sophistication of their art, architecture, and pottery in the hundred years to follow.

 

This event was part of what is known as the Bronze Age collapse, and it remains one of the largest dark spots in historians’ records. And one of the causes of this bizarre collapse was the mysterious “Sea Peoples” — a technologically inferior, unaffiliated group of seafaring warriors who raided the lands and are often credited with the collapse of these once-great civilisations.

The problem is, historians still have little if any idea of where these warriors came from, or what became of them after their conquest finally ended in Egypt. Also unknown is how the Sea Peoples managed to conquer civilisations hundreds of years more advanced in weaponry.

But without solid records from the time, and with only scattered details of the origins of these strange raiders, we may never know their true identity.

2. Antikythera Mechanism

The Antikythera mechanism is an incredibly intricate analogue computer found in a shipwreck near Greece in the year 1900.

The device was used to determine the positions of celestial bodies using a mind-bogglingly complex series of bronze gears.

The device in and of itself would already be impressive, but the unbelievable part of the mechanism? It was created 100 years before the birth of Christ, and more than 1,000 years before anything even approaching its level of technological complexity and workmanship would be discovered again.

The device also came long before our modern understanding of astronomy and physics. The Antikythera mechanism was built over 1,600 years before Galileo was born, and over 1,700 years before Isaac Newton was born.

Now, the rational explanation is that the device used working theories on the movements of celestial bodies established at the time, and some remarkably brilliant craftsmen.

But if you were looking for a jumping-off point for your new time-travel novel or alien sci-fi epic, this one should hit you like a 10-tonne brick. Because for all the explanations we can offer, the Antikythera mechanism raises even more questions.

3. Mysteries Of Space:

Since the beginning of life, man has looked to the stars with a sense of wonder. Between then and now, many advances have been made in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, and physics in an attempt to explain the things we see above, yet the more we believe we understand, the less we really seem to know. In something as big as the universe, there are bound to be unexplainable phenomena, and things we truly can’t grasp. The universe shows us how small we really are, and in a place so big, is it really plausible to believe that we are alone? And is there any reason someone might not want us to know? This is a list of what I believe to be some of the best mysteries and conspiracy theories of outer space.

EINSTEIN, RELATIVITY AND SPACE TIME CONTINUUM

  1. In order to sidestep the issue of Newton’s Third Law of Motion and the impossibility of matter traveling faster than the speed of light, we can look to Einstein and the relationship between space and time. Taken together, space, consisting of three dimensions (up-down, left-right, and forward-backward) and time are all part of what’s called the space-time continuum.
  2. It’s important to understand Einstein’s work on the space-time continuum and how it relates to the Enterprise traveling through space. In his Special Theory of Relativity, Einstein states two postulates:

The speed of light (about 300,000,000 meters per second) is the same for all observers, whether or not they’re moving.

Anyone moving at a constant speed should observe the same physical laws. 

proccessing of the universe
  •  Putting these two ideas together, Einstein realized that space and

    time are relative — an object in motion actually experiences time at a slower rate than one at rest. Although this may seem absurd to us, we travel incredibly slow when compared to the speed of light, so we don’t notice the hands on our watches ticking slower when we’re running or traveling on an airplane. Scientists have actually proved this phenomenon by sending atomic clocks up with high-speed rocket ships. They returned to Earth slightly behind the clocks on the ground.

Gravitational Force
  • What does this mean for the Captain Kirk and his team? The closer an object gets to the speed of light, that object actually experiences time at a significantly slower rate. If the Enterprise were traveling safely at close to the speed of light to the center of our galaxy from Earth, it would take 25,000 years of Earth time. For the crew, however, the trip would probably only take 10 years.

Although that timeframe might be possible for the individuals onboard, we’re presented with yet another problem — a Federation attempting to run an intergalactic civilization would run into some problems if it took 50,000 years for a starship to hit the center of our galaxy and come back.

 THE NEXT GENERATION

So the Enterprise has to avoid the speed of light in order to keep the passengers onboard in synch with Federation time. At the same time, it also must reach speeds faster than that of light in order to move around the universe in an efficient manner. Unfortunately, as Einstein states in his Special Theory of Relativity, nothing is faster than the speed of light. Space travel therefore would be impossible if we’re looking at the special relativity.

That’s why we need to look at Einstein’s later theory, the General Theory of Relativity, which describes how gravity affects the shape of space and flow of time. Imagine a stretched-out sheet. If you place a bowling ball in the middle of the sheet, the sheet will warp as the weight of the ball pushes down on it. If you place a baseball on the same sheet, it will roll towards the bowling ball. This is a simple design, and space doesn’t act like a two-dimension bed sheet, but it can be applied to something like our solar system — more massive objects like our sun can warp space and affect the orbits of the surrounding planets. The planets don’t fall into the sun, of course, because of the high speeds at which they travel.

ANIME:how is it created?

 

At some point in watching our favorite anime series, fans might have wondered how exactly to create an entire animated TV show. How is anime created? What are the necessary preparations? Who are the people behind the production process?

These kind of questions are a few of those matters that avid fans and animation enthusiasts love to know and examine in detail.

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Pre-Production

This is the planning stage. It is where the crucial decision of whether or not an animation gets through. In this stage, we get to identify who wants to create the anime and the people backing up the project.

One could argue that it’s the most tedious part of the process considering the time and effort spent on it. At this stage, sponsors who will provide the money for the production, and the core team who will be responsible for the legwork has to be built.

Script/Screenplay Writing

As soon as the project gets the green light, working on the anime’s foundation automatically commences. This starts with scriptwriting.

Narration, stage direction, and character interactions or dialogues are provided in this process. For anime adaptations, scripts are usually created to keep the appeal of the original product, such as those shows derived from games.

In the case of original works, the creator will receive due credit, though the scripts could change to adapt the necessary variation once animated. Of course, the original makers of the story will be given a heads-up about the change, but in practice, they don’t really get to make the final say.

Once the script is finished, episode directors and producers will have to review the entire thing to see if there’s a need to change something or add crucial elements to promote a product, most likely those of their sponsors.

Storyboarding

A storyboard contains the following information:

  • Cut numbers
  • Actor movements
  • Camera movements, such as zooming and panning
  • Dialogue from the screenplay
  • Length of each cut measured in seconds and frames

This is where side notes about special effects, sound, and other guidelines are provided. The storyboard is what dictates the flow of the events, so the person in charge of the work makes sure that details are well provided.

Layout

Now we get to the nitty-gritty of the art process. If storyboarding is the bones of the entire project, layout-ing is the muscle, tendon, joints and ligaments.

Here, layout artists work on transforming the rough images from the storyboard into the actual image that would appear once it’s animated. This is where you get to see add-on details such as:

Background art, such as mountains, trees, and buildings
Background shading, like warm colors for summer or a gloomy atmosphere for stormy weather

In layout-ing, you get a clearer image of where characters are standing, how a setting is framed and seen on screen, and things like that.

Businessman who has been a meeting in the office

Animation

At this point, the storyboard has been polished by providing detailed layouts per scene. The next step is animation!

A lot of animators and anime fans admire this process knowing that it’s the part where you get to see static images move, breathing life into the images. This stage is where the animation director and his team hand-draw the frames and simulate it using computers and advanced digital animation programs.

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Compositing

This is when the final touches are applied! Once the layout and additional drawings are completed, they are then transferred to a computer to be digitalized.

Here, colors are added depending on the specified color palette. At present, the industry is already employing advanced programs like Retas! PRO. This advanced program helps animators add more vibrant colors onto the final art. If you compare shows such as the Hunter X Hunter 1999 and its more recent 2011 version, you’ll see a stark difference when it comes to coloring.

In this stage, special effects like lighting, flares, glint, blur and more are also added. After the compositing procedure, the assigned staff work on the final polishing to make necessary adjustments to timing. This is done to make sure that the episode will not exceed or fall short of its broadcast period.

Post-Production

 

Anything that comes after the editing stage is considered as part of the post-production process. Procedures such as voice acting, subtitles, final episode cuts, and additional late edits fall on this part.

It’s easy to admire, enjoy and even critic on different anime series we watch based on its final output, but understanding how the entire production works makes it all the more special.

Producing an episode requires time, skills and money and there’s no foolproof guarantee that creators can enjoy a huge profit from the project. If you want to show your support, then watching anime episodes on legal online streaming sites or buying the original DVD copies is a good way to go! Next time you decide to pick a series, spend a little bit of time appreciating the effort that went into the show.

voice actor for tv program working in post production studio, DJ in radio broadcasting, sound engineer on digital editing equipment