An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth‘s lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. Theseismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.

At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When theepicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.

In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event — whether natural or caused by humans — that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called itsfocus or hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.

Naturally occurring earthquakes

Fault types

Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy.[1] This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake’s total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake’s energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth’s available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth’s deep interior.[2]

Earthquake fault types

There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an interplate earthquake: normal, reverse () and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergent boundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other; transform boundaries are a particular type of strike-slip fault. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip; this is known as oblique slip.

Reverse faults, particularly those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including almost all of those of magnitude 8 or more. Strike-slip faults, particularly continental transforms, can produce major earthquakes up to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are generally less than magnitude 7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a roughly thirtyfold increase in the energy released. For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases approximately 30 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times (30 × 30) more energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs like those used in World War II.[3]

This is so because the energy released in an earthquake, and thus its magnitude, is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures[4] and the stress drop. Therefore, the longer the length and the wider the width of the faulted area, the larger the resulting magnitude. The topmost, brittle part of the Earth’s crust, and the cool slabs of the tectonic plates that are descending down into the hot mantle, are the only parts of our planet which can store elastic energy and release it in fault ruptures. Rocks hotter than about 300 degrees Celsius flow in response to stress; they do not rupture in earthquakes.[5][6] The maximum observed lengths of ruptures and mapped faults (which may break in a single rupture) are approximately 1000 km. Examples are the earthquakes in Chile, 1960; Alaska, 1957; Sumatra, 2004, all in subduction zones. The longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault (1857, 1906), the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey (1939) and the Denali Fault in Alaska (2002), are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, and those along normal faults are even shorter.

Aerial photo of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain, northwest of Los Angeles

The most important parameter controlling the maximum earthquake magnitude on a fault is however not the maximum available length, but the available width because the latter varies by a factor of 20. Along converging plate margins, the dip angle of the rupture plane is very shallow, typically about 10 degrees.[7] Thus the width of the plane within the top brittle crust of the Earth can become 50 to 100 km (Japan, 2011; Alaska, 1964), making the most powerful earthquakes possible.

Strike-slip faults tend to be oriented near vertically, resulting in an approximate width of 10 km within the brittle crust,[8] thus earthquakes with magnitudes much larger than 8 are not possible. Maximum magnitudes along many normal faults are even more limited because many of them are located along spreading centers, as in Iceland, where the thickness of the brittle layer is only about 6 km.[9][10]

In addition, there exists a hierarchy of stress level in the three fault types. faults are generated by the highest, strike slip by intermediate, and normal faults by the lowest stress levels.[11] This can easily be understood by considering the direction of the greatest principal stress, the direction of the force that ‘pushes’ the rock mass during the faulting. In the case of normal faults, the rock mass is pushed down in a vertical direction, thus the pushing force (greatest principal stress) equals the weight of the rock mass itself. In the case of thrusting, the rock mass ‘escapes’ in the direction of the least principal stress, namely upward, lifting the rock mass up, thus the overburden equals the least principal stress. Strike-slip faulting is intermediate between the other two types described above. This difference in stress regime in the three faulting environments can contribute to differences in stress drop during faulting, which contributes to differences in the radiated energy, regardless of fault dimensions.

Earthquakes away from plate boundaries

Where plate boundaries occur within the continental lithosphere, deformation is spread out over a much larger area than the plate boundary itself. In the case of the San Andreas fault continental transform, many earthquakes occur away from the plate boundary and are related to strains developed within the broader zone of deformation caused by major irregularities in the fault trace (e.g., the “Big bend” region). The Northridge earthquake was associated with movement on a blind within such a zone. Another example is the strongly oblique convergent plate boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian plates where it runs through the northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains. The deformation associated with this plate boundary is partitioned into nearly pure sense movements perpendicular to the boundary over a wide zone to the southwest and nearly pure strike-slip motion along the Main Recent Fault close to the actual plate boundary itself. This is demonstrated by earthquake focal mechanisms.[12]

All tectonic plates have internal stress fields caused by their interactions with neighboring plates and sedimentary loading or unloading (e.g. deglaciation).[13] These stresses may be sufficient to cause failure along existing fault planes, giving rise to intraplate earthquakes.[14]

Shallow-focus and deep-focus earthquakes

Collapsed Gran Hotel building in the San Salvador metropolis, after the shallow 1986 San Salvador earthquake.

The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometers. Earthquakes occurring at a depth of less than 70 km are classified as ‘shallow-focus’ earthquakes, while those with a focal-depth between 70 and 300 km are commonly termed ‘mid-focus’ or ‘intermediate-depth’ earthquakes. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, Deep-focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (ranging from 300 up to 700 kilometers).[15]These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati–Benioff zones. Deep-focus earthquakes occur at a depth where the subducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep-focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure.[16]

Earthquakes and volcanic activity

Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there, both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of volcanic eruptions, as during the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.[17] Earthquake swarms can serve as markers for the location of the flowing magma throughout the volcanoes. These swarms can be recorded byseismometers and tiltmeters (a device that measures ground slope) and used as sensors to predict imminent or upcoming eruptions.[18]

Rupture dynamics

A tectonic earthquake begins by an initial rupture at a point on the fault surface, a process known as nucleation. The scale of the nucleation zone is uncertain, with some evidence, such as the rupture dimensions of the smallest earthquakes, suggesting that it is smaller than 100 m while other evidence, such as a slow component revealed by low-frequency spectra of some earthquakes, suggest that it is larger. The possibility that the nucleation involves some sort of preparation process is supported by the observation that about 40% of earthquakes are preceded by foreshocks. Once the rupture has initiated, it begins to propagate along the fault surface. The mechanics of this process are poorly understood, partly because it is difficult to recreate the high sliding velocities in a laboratory. Also the effects of strong ground motion make it very difficult to record information close to a nucleation zone.[19]

Rupture propagation is generally modeled using a fracture mechanics approach, likening the rupture to a propagating mixed mode shear . The rupture velocity is a function of the fracture energy in the volume around the tip, increasing with decreasing fracture energy. The velocity of rupture propagation is orders of magnitude faster than the displacement velocity across the fault. Earthquake ruptures typically propagate at velocities that are in the range 70–90% of the S-wave velocity, and this is independent of earthquake size. A small subset of earthquake ruptures appear to have propagated at speeds greater than the S-wave velocity. These supershear earthquakes have all been observed during large strike-slip events. The unusually wide zone of coseismic damage caused by the 2001 Kunlun earthquake has been attributed to the effects of the sonic boom developed in such earthquakes. Some earthquake ruptures travel at unusually low velocities and are referred to as slow earthquakes. A particularly dangerous form of slow earthquake is the tsunami earthquake, observed where the relatively low felt intensities, caused by the slow propagation speed of some great earthquakes, fail to alert the population of the neighboring coast, as in the 1896 Sanriku earthquake.[19]

Tidal forces

Tides may induce some seismicity, see tidal triggering of earthquakes for details.

Earthquake clusters

Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time.[20] Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors that cause little to no damage, but there is a theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.[21]


Magnitude of the Central Italy earthquakes of August and October 2016, ofJanuary 2017 and the aftershocks (which continued to occur after the period shown here).

An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. If an aftershock is larger than the main shock, the aftershock is redesignated as the main shock and the original main shock is redesignated as a foreshock. Aftershocks are formed as the crust around the displacedfault plane adjusts to the effects of the main shock.[20]

Earthquake swarms

Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notable higher magnitudes than the other. An example of an earthquake swarm is the 2004 activity atYellowstone National Park.[22] In August 2012, a swarm of earthquakes shook Southern California’s Imperial Valley, showing the most recorded activity in the area since the 1970s.[23]

Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in what has been called an earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern was observed in the sequence of about a dozen earthquakes that struck the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey in the 20th century and has been inferred for older anomalous clusters of large earthquakes in the Middle East.[24][25]

Intensity of earth quaking and magnitude of earthquakes

Quaking or shaking of the earth is a common phenomenon undoubtedly known to humans from earliest times. Prior to the development of strong-motion accelerometers that can measure peak ground speed and acceleration directly, the intensity of the earth-shaking was estimated on the basis of the observed effects, as categorized on various seismic intensity scales. Only in the last century has the source of such shaking been identified as ruptures in the earth’s crust, with the intensity of shaking at any locality dependent not only on the local ground conditions, but also on the strength or magnitude of the rupture, and on its distance.[26]

The first scale for measuring earthquake magnitudes was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935. Subsequent scales (see seismic magnitude scales) have retained a key feature, where each unit represents a ten-fold difference in the amplitude of the ground shaking, and a 32-fold difference in energy. Subsequent scales are also adjusted to have approximately the same numeric value within the limits of the scale.[27]

Although the mass media commonly reports earthquake magnitudes as “Richter magnitude” or “Richter scale”, standard practice by most seismological authorities is to express an earthquake’s strength on the moment magnitude scale, which is based on the actual energy released by an earthquake.[28]

Frequency of occurrence

It is estimated that around 500,000 earthquakes occur each year, detectable with current instrumentation. About 100,000 of these can be felt.[29][30] Minor earthquakes occur nearly constantly around the world in places like California and Alaska in the U.S., as well as in El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, Chile, Peru, Indonesia, Iran, Pakistan, the Azoresin Portugal, Turkey, New Zealand, Greece, Italy, India, Nepal and Japan, but earthquakes can occur almost anywhere, including Downstate New York, England, and Australia.[31]Larger earthquakes occur less frequently, the relationship being exponential; for example, roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5.[32] In the (low seismicity) United Kingdom, for example, it has been calculated that the average recurrences are: an earthquake of 3.7–4.6 every year, an earthquake of 4.7–5.5 every 10 years, and an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.[33] This is an example of the Gutenberg–Richter law.

The Messina earthquake and tsunami took as many as 200,000 lives on December 28, 1908 in Sicily andCalabria.[34]

The number of seismic stations has increased from about 350 in 1931 to many thousands today. As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past, but this is because of the vast improvement in instrumentation, rather than an increase in the number of earthquakes. The United States Geological Survey estimates that, since 1900, there have been an average of 18 major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0–7.9) and one great earthquake (magnitude 8.0 or greater) per year, and that this average has been relatively stable.[35] In recent years, the number of major earthquakes per year has decreased, though this is probably a statistical fluctuation rather than a systematic trend.[36] More detailed statistics on the size and frequency of earthquakes is available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).[37] A recent increase in the number of major earthquakes has been noted, which could be explained by a cyclical pattern of periods of intense tectonic activity, interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity. However, accurate recordings of earthquakes only began in the early 1900s, so it is too early to categorically state that this is the case.[38]

Most of the world’s earthquakes (90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000 km long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate.[39][40] Massive earthquakes tend to occur along other plate boundaries, too, such as along the Himalayan Mountains.[41]

With the rapid growth of mega-cities such as Mexico City, Tokyo and Tehran, in areas of high seismic risk, some seismologists are warning that a single quake may claim the lives of up to 3 million people.[42]

Induced seismicity

While most earthquakes are caused by movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates, human activity can also produce earthquakes. Four main activities contribute to this phenomenon: storing large amounts of water behind a dam (and possibly building an extremely heavy building), drilling and injecting liquid into wells, and by coal mining and oil drilling.[43] Perhaps the best known example is the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China’s Sichuan Province in May; this tremor resulted in 69,227 fatalities and is the 19th deadliest earthquake of all time. The Zipingpu Dam is believed to have fluctuated the pressure of the fault 1,650 feet (503 m) away; this pressure probably increased the power of the earthquake and accelerated the rate of movement for the fault.[44] The greatest earthquake in Australia’s history is also claimed to be induced by humanity, through coal mining.The city of Newcastle was built over a large sector of coal mining areas. The earthquake has been reported to be spawned from a fault that reactivated due to the millions of tonnes of rock removed in the mining process.[45]

Measuring and locating earthquakes

The instrumental scales used to describe the size of an earthquake began with the Richter magnitude scale in the 1930s. It is a relatively simple measurement of an event’s amplitude, and its use has become minimal in the 21st century. Seismic waves travel through the Earth’s interior and can be recorded by seismometers at great distances. Thesurface wave magnitude was developed in the 1950s as a means to measure remote earthquakes and to improve the accuracy for larger events. The moment magnitude scalemeasures the amplitude of the shock, but also takes into account the seismic moment (total rupture area, average slip of the fault, and rigidity of the rock). The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale, the Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale, and the Mercalli intensity scale are based on the observed effects.

Every tremor produces different types of seismic waves, which travel through rock with different velocities:

Propagation velocity of the seismic waves ranges from approx. 3 km/s up to 13 km/s, depending on the density and elasticity of the medium. In the Earth’s interior the shock- or P waves travel much faster than the S waves (approx. relation 1.7 : 1). The differences in travel time from the epicenter to the observatory are a measure of the distance and can be used to image both sources of quakes and structures within the Earth. Also, the depth of the hypocenter can be computed roughly.

In solid rock P-waves travel at about 6 to 7 km per second; the velocity increases within the deep mantle to ~13 km/s. The velocity of S-waves ranges from 2–3 km/s in light sediments and 4–5 km/s in the Earth’s crust up to 7 km/s in the deep mantle. As a consequence, the first waves of a distant earthquake arrive at an observatory via the Earth’s mantle.

On average, the kilometer distance to the earthquake is the number of seconds between the P and S wave times 8.[46] Slight deviations are caused by inhomogeneities of subsurface structure. By such analyses of seismograms the Earth’s core was located in 1913 by Beno Gutenberg.

S waves and later arriving surface waves do main damage compared to P waves. P wave squeezes and expands material in the same direction it is traveling. S wave shakes the ground up and down and back and forth.[47]

Earthquakes are not only categorized by their magnitude but also by the place where they occur. The world is divided into 754 Flinn–Engdahl regions (F-E regions), which are based on political and geographical boundaries as well as seismic activity. More active zones are divided into smaller F-E regions whereas less active zones belong to larger F-E regions.

Standard reporting of earthquakes includes its magnitude, date and time of occurrence, geographic coordinates of its epicenter, depth of the epicenter, geographical region, distances to population centers, location uncertainty, a number of parameters that are included in USGS earthquake reports (number of stations reporting, number of observations, etc.), and a unique event ID.[48]

Although relatively slow seismic waves have traditionally been used to detect earthquakes, scientists realized in 2016 that gravitational measurements could provide instantaneous detection of earthquakes, and confirmed this by analyzing gravitational records associated with the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (“Fukushima”) earthquake.[49][50]

Effects of earthquakes


What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nano-scale, which is about 1 to 100 nano meters.  

Photo of Richard Feynman
Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.
  • Nano science and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

  • The ideas and concepts behind nano science and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” by physicist Richard
  • Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used.
  • In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultra precision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology.
  • It wasn’t until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could “see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Medieval stained glass window courtesy of NanoBioNet
Medieval stained glass windows are an example of  how nanotechnology was used in the pre-modern era. (Courtesy: NanoBioNet)

It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples:

  • There are 25,400,000 nanometers in an inch
  • A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometers thick
  • On a comparative scale, if a marble were a nanometer, then one meter would be the size of the Earth
  • Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules.
  • Everything on Earth is made up of atoms—the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies.
  • But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the eye. In fact, it’s impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes.
  • The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recently—about 30 years ago.
  • Once scientists had the right tools, such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born.
  • Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materials were used for centuries.
  • Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago.
  • The artists back then just didn’t know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with.
  • Today’s scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nano scale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts.

Goods and Services Tax (India)

Goods and Services Tax (India):

Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect tax levied in India on the sale of goods and services. Goods and services are divided into five tax slabs for collection of tax – 0%, 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%. Petroleum products and Alcoholic drinks are taxed separately by the individual state governments. There is a special rate of 0.25% on rough precious and semi-precious stones and 3% on gold.[1] In addition a cess of 22% or other rates on top of 28% GST applies on few items like aerated drinks, luxury cars and tobacco products.[2]

The tax came into effect from July 1, 2017 through the implementation of one hundred and first amendment by the Government of India. The tax replaced existing multiple cascading taxes levied by the central and state governments. The tax rates, rules and regulations are governed by the Goods and Services Tax Council which comprises of finance ministers of centre and all the states. GST simplified a slew of indirect taxes with a unified tax and is therefore expected to dramatically reshape the country’s 2 trillion dollar economy.[3]


The reform process of India’s indirect tax regime was started in 1986 by Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Finance Minister in Rajiv Gandhi’s government, with the introduction of the Modified Value Added Tax (MODVAT). Subsequently, Manmohan Singh,and the Finance Minister P V Narasimha Rao, initiated early discussions on a Value Added Tax at the state level.[4] A single common “Goods and Services Tax (GST)” was proposed and given a go-ahead in 1999 during a meeting between the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and his economic advisory panel, which included three former RBI governors IG Patel, Bimal Jalan and C Rangarajan. Vajpayee set up a committee headed by the thenfinance minister of West Bengal, Asim Dasgupta to design a GST model.[5]

The Ravi Dasgupta committee was also tasked with putting in place the back-end technology and logistics (later came to be known as the GST Network, or GSTN, in 2017) for rolling out a uniform taxation regime in the country. In 2002, the Vajpayee government formed a task force under Vijay Kelkar to recommend tax reforms. In 2005, the Kelkar committee recommended rolling out GST as suggested by the 12th Finance Commission.[5]

After the fall of the BJP-led NDA government in 2004, and the election of a Congress-led UPA government, the new Finance Minister P Chidambaram in February 2006 continued work on the same and proposed a GST rollout by 1 April 2010. However in 2010, with the Trinamool Congress routing CPI(M) out of power in West Bengal, Asim Dasgupta resigned as the head of the GST committee. Dasgupta admitted in an interview that 80% of the task had been done.[5]

In 2014, the NDA government was elected into power, this time under the leadership of Narendra Modi. With the consequential dissolution of the 15th Lok Sabha, the GST Bill – approved by the standing committee for reintroduction – lapsed. Seven months after the formation of the Modi government, the new Finance Minister Arun Jaitley introduced the GST Bill in the Lok Sabha, where the BJP had a majority. In February 2015, Jaitley set another deadline of 1 April 2017 to implement GST. In May 2016, the Lok Sabha passed the Constitution Amendment Bill, paving way for GST. However, the Opposition, led by the Congress, demanded that the GST Bill be again sent back to the Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha due to disagreements on several statements in the Bill relating to taxation. Finally in August 2016, the Amendment Bill was passed. Over the next 15 to 20 days, 18 states ratified the GST Bill and the President Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to it.[6][7]

A 22-members select committee was formed to look into the proposed GST laws.[8] State and Union Territory GST laws were passed by all the states and Union Territories of India except Jammu & Kashmir, paving the way for smooth rollout of the tax from 1 July 2017.[9] the Jammu and Kashmir state legislature passed its GST act on 7 July 2017, thereby ensuring that the entire nation is brought under an unified indirect taxation system. There was to be no GST on the sale and purchase of securities. That continues to be governed by Securities Transaction Tax (STT).[10]


Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamiadeveloped writing in about 3000 BC,[6] but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that “the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT).” Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[7]



Milo is a robot developed by American humanoid manufacturer Robokind to support children with Autism. Two-feet tall, it’s been designed specifically for parents, therapists, and educators to teach children social skills.

The robot displays different emotions which users have to identify using an iPad. While this happens, cameras built into Milo’s eyes monitor the child’s behaviour to provide feedback, and the children also wear a chest pack that looks out for changes in heart rate. That way, whoever’s working with the children can address problems.

The firm claims that children working with Milo have an engagement rate of 70-90%, compared to 3-10% with other therapy methods.

Milo Infographic

Using the Robots4Autism program, individuals with ASD learn to:

  • Tune in on emotions
  • Express empathy
  • Act more appropriately in social situations
  • Self-motivate
  • Generalize in the population

The Robots4Autism lessons are designed to teach social behaviors and emotional identification to learners ages 5-17 who meet the Prerequisite Skills. To determine if the curriculum is appropriate for your child, please read the prerequisite skills needed.

Milo delivers lessons verbally. As he speaks, symbols are displayed on his chest screen that will help your learner better understand what he is saying. Throughout the lessons, Milo will ask your learner to watch four to five second video clips on the student tablet. The videos show learners displaying the skills or behaviors both correctly and incorrectly that Milo is teaching. Your learner will be asked “yes” or “no” questions to determine if the learners in the video are doing the behaviors right or wrong.

It is recommended that your learner work with Milo, along with an educator or therapist, for 30 to 60 minutes at least three times a week.

Image result for milo robotsImage result for milo robotsImage result for milo robotsImage result for milo robots


 THE 10 Dimensions Explained

The First Dimension: Length

Straight Line

The first dimension is length, or x-axis—a straight line, with no other characteristics.

The Second Dimension: Height


Height, or y-axis, can be added to the length to produce a two-dimensional object, such as a triangle or square.

The Third Dimension: Depth


Depth, or z-axis, can be added to the previous two dimensions to produce objects that have volume, like a cube, pyramid, or sphere. This is the end of the dimensions that are directly physically perceptible by human beings. All dimensions beyond the third are theoretical.

The Fourth Dimension: Time

Cube Time

The fourth dimension is the position in time occupied by a three-dimensional object. (Image via.)

The Fifth Dimension: Possible Worlds

Multiple Earths

The fifth dimension is a world slightly different than ours, from which we could measure similarities and differences to our own world. (Image via.)

The Sixth Dimension: A Plane of All Possible Worlds With the Same Start Conditions

Multiple Worlds

The sixth dimension is a plane containing all possible universes with the same start conditions as ours; i.e., the Big .

The Seventh Dimension: A Plane of All Possible Worlds With Different Start Conditions

Many Worlds

The seventh dimension expands upon the sixth by plotting all possible worlds that begin with different start conditions.

The Eighth Dimension: A Plane of All Possible Worlds, Each With Different Start Conditions, Each Branching Out Infinitely


Are you dizzy yet? (OK, OK, look, there’s a point beyond which the mind of humanity is unable to cognize without resorting to rave flyer graphics.) (Image via.)

RELATED: Here’s 8 Celebrities Who Practice Chaos Magick

The Ninth Dimension: All Possible Worlds, Starting With All Possible Start Conditions and Laws of Physics


In each of these dimensions, which represent all possible start conditions, the laws of physics are all completely different. (Image via.)

The Tenth Dimension: Infinite Possibilities


At this level of complexity, everything that is possible and imaginable exists. Even a world in which you have no student loans.


Before Diwali night, people clean, renovate, and decorate their homes and offices.[12] On Diwali night, people dress up in new clothes or their best outfits, light up diyas (lamps and candles) inside and outside their home, participate in family puja (prayers) typically toLakshmi – the goddess of fertility and prosperity. After puja, fireworks follow,[13] then a family feast including mithai (sweets), and an exchange of gifts between family members and close friends. Diwali also marks a major shopping period in nations where it is celebrated.[14]

The name of festive days as well as the rituals of Diwali vary significantly among Hindus, based on the region of India. In many parts of India,[15] the festivities start with Dhanteras (in northern and western part of India), followed by Naraka Chaturdasi on second day, Diwali on the third day, Diwali Padva dedicated to wife–husband relationship on the fourth day, and festivities end with Bhai Doojdedicated to sister–brother bond on the fifth day. Dhanteras usually falls eighteen days after Dussehra.

On the same night that Hindus celebrate Diwali, Jains celebrate a festival also called Diwali to mark the attainment of moksha byMahavira,[16][17] Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the release of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison,[18] andNewar Buddhists, unlike the majority of

Diya necklace Dipavali Diwali November 2013.jpg
Glowing Swayambhu (3005358416).jpg
Diwali fireworks and lighting celebrations India 2012.jpg
Fireworks Diwali Chennai India November 2013 b.jpg
Sweets Mithai for Diwali and other Festivals of India.jpg
Diyas Diwali Decor India.jpg




Pokémon (Japanese: ポケモン Hepburn: Pokemon, Japanese: [pokemoɴ]; English: /ˈpkɪˌmɒn, –ki-, –k-/)[1][2][3] is a media franchisemanaged by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.[4] The franchise copyright is shared by all three companies, but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark.[5] The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995,[6] and is centered on fictional creatures called “Pokémon”, which humans, known as Pokémon Trainers, catch and train to battle each other for sport.

The franchise began as a pair of video games for the original Game Boy that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo. It now spans video games, trading card games, animated television shows and movies, comic books, and toys. Pokémon is the second best-selling video game franchise, behind only Nintendo’s Mario franchise[7] and the highest-grossing media franchise of all time. The franchise is also represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series.

Cumulative sales of the video games (including home console games, such as Hey You, Pikachu! for the Nintendo 64) have reached more than 300 million copies.[8] In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing ofPokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement. The Pokémon Company International (formerly Pokémon USA Inc.), a subsidiary of Japan’s Pokémon Co., oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia.[9] As of March 2017, the Pokémon franchise has grossed revenues of ¥6.0 trillion worldwide[8] (equivalent to US$55.15 billion).

The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006.[10] 2016 marks the 20th anniversary of the release of the original games, with the company celebrating by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50, issuing re-releases of Pokémon Red, Blue, and Yellow, and completely redesigning the way the newest games are played.[11][12] The mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was released in July 2016.[13] The first seventh-generation games Pokémon Sun and Moon were released worldwide on November 18, 2016.[14] A live-action film adaptation based on Great Detective Pikachu began production in 2017.[15] The English slogan for the franchise is “Gotta Catch ‘Em All”.[16][17]


The name Pokémon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター Poketto Monsutā).[18] The term Pokémon, in addition to referring to the Pokémon franchise itself, also collectively refers to the 806 fictional species that have made appearances in Pokémon media as of the release of the seventh generation titles Pokémon Sun and Moon. “Pokémon” is identical in both the singular and plural, as is each individual species name; it is grammatically correct to say “one Pokémon” and “many Pokémon”, as well as “one Pikachu” and “many Pikachu”.[19]


File:The Story of Satoshi Tajiri.webm

An animated history of how Satoshi Tajiri came to conceive Pokémon.

Tajiri first thought of Pokémon, albeit with a different concept and name, around 1989, when the Game Boy was first released. The concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems from the hobby of insect collecting, a popular pastime which Pokémon executive director Satoshi Tajiri enjoyed as a child.[20] Players are designated as Pokémon Trainers and have three general goals: to complete the regional Pokédex by collecting all of the available Pokémon species found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete the national Pokédex by transferring Pokémon from other regions, and to train a team of powerful Pokémon from those they have caught to compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may eventually win the Pokémon League and become the regional Champion. These themes of collecting, training, and battling are present in almost every version of the Pokémon franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, and the Pokémon Trading Card Game.

In most incarnations of the Pokémon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokémon is able to capture that Pokémon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible spherical tool called a Poké Ball at it. If the Pokémon is unable to escape the confines of the Poké Ball, it is officially considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer. Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the Trainer demonstrates such a lack of experience that the Pokémon would rather act on its own accord. Trainers can send out any of their Pokémon to wage non-lethal battles against other Pokémon; if the opposing Pokémon is wild, the Trainer can capture that Pokémon with a Poké Ball, increasing his or her collection of creatures. Pokémon already owned by other Trainers cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side games. If a Pokémon fully defeats an opponent in battle so that the opponent is knocked out (“faints”), the winning Pokémon gainsexperience points and may level up. When leveling up, the Pokémon’s battling aptitude statistics (“stats, such as Attack and Speed”) increase. At certain levels, the Pokémon may also learn new moves, which are techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokémon can undergo a form of metamorphosis and transform into a similar but stronger species of Pokémon, a process called evolution.

In the main series, each game’s single-player mode requires the Trainer to raise a team of Pokémon to defeat many non-player character (NPC) Trainers and their Pokémon. Each game lays out a somewhat linear path through a specific region of the Pokémon world for the Trainer to journey through, completing events and battling opponents along the way (including foiling the plans of an ‘evil’ team of Pokémon Trainers who serve as antagonists to the player). Each game (excluding Sun and Moon) features eight especially powerful Trainers, referred to as Gym Leaders, that the Trainer must defeat in order to progress. As a reward, the Trainer receives a Gym Badge, and once all eight badges are collected, that Trainer is eligible to challenge the region’s Pokémon League, where four immensely talented trainers (referred to collectively as the “Elite Four“) challenge the Trainer to four Pokémon battles in succession. If the trainer can overcome this gauntlet, he or she must then challenge the Regional Champion, the master Trainer who had previously defeated the Elite Four. Any Trainer who wins this last battle becomes the new champion.

In Sun and Moon, however, the Gym Leaders are not present, and are instead replaced with “Trial Captains”, a NPC who gives the Trainer a challenge to complete so as to earn a special item. Once the player completes all of these on an island, the Trainer must take on the Island Kahuna, the strongest Trainer on the island. Once the player beats all the Kahunas, he must travel to the recently built Pokémon League, where he must re-defeat two of the Kahunas and two strong Trainers, who now form the Elite Four, and then defend his newly received title against challengers.

It is implied by Takeshi Shudo, the initial writer for the anime, that the creators of Pokémon had not anticipated the franchise would become so popular, and there were plans to end the series by the Gold and Silver era. In his blog, Shudo reveals he even had an ending drafted for the anime, in which the last episode reveals an elderly Ash Ketchumhallucinated the entire events of the show.[21] This is supported in an interview with president of The Pokémon Company, Tsunekazu Ishihara, who predicted the anime would end by 1998. He also stated he initially did not intend on making “any more Pokémon titles” after Gold and Silver and would have moved on to other projects. However the games’ success following their release prompted Ishinhara to continue work on the series.[22]

Video games


The original Pokémon games were role-playing games (RPGs) with an element of strategy, and were created by Satoshi Tajiri for the Game Boy. These RPGs, and their sequels,remakes, and English language translations, are still considered the “main” Pokémon games, and the games which most fans of the series are referring to when they use the term “Pokémon games”. All of the licensed Pokémon properties overseen by The Pokémon Company International are divided roughly by generation. These generations are roughly chronological divisions by release; every several years, when an official sequel in the main RPG series is released that features new Pokémon, characters, and gameplay concepts, that sequel is considered the start of a new generation of the franchise. The main games and their spin-offs, the anime, manga, and trading card game are all updated with the new Pokémon properties each time a new generation begins. The franchise began the seventh generation on November 18, 2016.

A rival battle between aBulbasaur and aCharmander in Pokémon Red and Blue.[23]

Generation 1

The Pokémon franchise started off in its first generation with its initial release of Pocket Monsters Aka and Midori (“Red” and “Green”, respectively) for the Game Boy in Japan on February 27, 1996. When these games proved extremely popular, an enhanced Ao (“Blue“) version was released sometime after, and the Ao version was reprogrammed as Pokémon Red and Blue for international release. The games launched in the United States on September 30, 1998. The original Aka and Midori versions were never released outside Japan.[24] Afterwards, a further enhanced version titled Pokémon Yellow: Special Pikachu Edition was released to partially take advantage of the color palette of the Game Boy Color, as well as to feature more elements from the popular Pokémon anime. This first generation of games introduced the original 151 species of Pokémon, in National Pokédex order, encompassing all Pokémon from Bulbasaur to Mew. It also introduced the basic game concepts of capturing, training, battling, and trading Pokémon with both computer and human players. These versions of the games take place within the fictional Kanto region, inspired by the real world Kantō region of Japan, though the name “Kanto” was not used until the second generation.

Generation 2

The second generation of Pokémon began in 1999 with the release of Pokémon Gold and Silver for Game Boy Color. Like the previous generation, an enhanced version titledPokémon Crystal was later released. The second generation introduced 100 new species of Pokémon, starting with Chikorita and ending with Celebi. The Pokédex totaled 251 Pokémon to collect, train, and battle, set in Johto, inspired by Japan’s Kansai region. The Pokémon mini is a handheld game console released in November 2001 in North America, December 2001 in Japan, and 2002 in Europe.

Generation 3

Pokémon entered its third generation with the 2002 release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire for Game Boy Advance and continued with the Game Boy Advance remakes ofPokémon Red and Blue, Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, and an enhanced version of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokémon Emerald. The third generation introduced 135 new Pokémon, starting with Treecko and ending with Deoxys, for a total of 386 species. Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire and Emerald are set in Hoenn, inspired by Japan’s Kyushuregion. However, this generation also garnered some criticism for leaving out several gameplay features, including the day-and-night system introduced in the previous generation. It was also the first installment that encouraged the player to collect merely a selected assortment of the total number of Pokémon rather than every existing species. By contrast, 202 out of 386 species are catchable in the Ruby and Sapphire versions.

Generation 4

In 2006, Japan began the fourth generation of the franchise with the release of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl for Nintendo DS. The fourth generation introduced another 107 new species of Pokémon, starting with Turtwig and ending with Arceus, bringing the total of Pokémon species to 493.[25] The Nintendo DS “touch screen” allows new features to the game such as cooking poffins with the stylus and using the “Pokétch”. New gameplay concepts include a restructured move-classification system, online multiplayer trading and battling via Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, the return and expansion of the second generation’s day-and-night system, the expansion of the third generation’s Pokémon Contests into “Super Contests”, and the new region of Sinnoh. This region was inspired by Japan’s Hokkaido region and part of Russia’s Sakhalin, and has an underground component for multiplayer gameplay in addition to the main overworld. Pokémon Platinum, the enhanced version of Diamond and Pearl—much like Pokémon Yellow, Crystal, and Emerald—was released in September 2008 in Japan, March 2009 in North America, and May 2009 in Australia and Europe. Spin-off titles in the fourth generation include the Pokémon Stadiumfollow-up Pokémon Battle Revolution for Wii, which has Wi-Fi connectivity as well.[26] Nintendo announced in May 2009 that enhanced remakes of Pokémon Gold and Silver, entitled Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver, would be released for the Nintendo DS system. HeartGold and SoulSilver are set in the Johto region and were released in September 2009 in Japan[27] and March 2010 in North America.[28]

Generation 5

The fifth generation of Pokémon began on September 18, 2010, with the release of Pokémon Black and White in Japan for Nintendo DS.[29] The games were originally announced by the Pokémon Company on January 29, 2010, with a tentative release later that year.[30][31] The final release date of September 18 was announced on June 27, 2010.[32] This version is set in the Unova region (イッシュ地方 Isshu-chihō, Isshu region), inspired by New York City, and utilizes the Nintendo DS’s 3-D rendering capabilities to a greater extent than Platinum, HeartGold, and SoulSilver, as shown in game footage of the player walking through the Castelia City (ヒウンシティ Hiun Shiti) metropolis. A total of 156 new Pokémon were introduced, starting with Victini and ending with Genesect, bringing the franchise’s total to 649. This is currently the only time that the number of Pokémon introduced surpasses the number introduced in the first generation.[33] It also deployed new game mechanics such as the C Gear (Cギア C Gia) wireless interactivity features[34] and the ability to upload game data to the Internet and to the player’s own computer.[35] Pokémon Black and White was released in Europe on March 4, 2011, in North America on March 6, 2011, and in Australia on March 10, 2011. On June 23, 2012, Nintendo released Pokémon Black 2 and Pokémon White 2 in Japan for Nintendo DS, with early October releases in North America and Europe. Black 2 and White 2 are sequels to Black and White, with several events in the second games referencing events in the first; they also allow players to link their previous Black or White with their Black 2 or White 2, introducing several events based on how they played their previous game.

Generation 6

Officially announced on January 8, 2013, and released simultaneously worldwide on October 12, 2013, Pokémon X and Pokémon Y for the Nintendo 3DS are part of the sixth generation of games.[36] Introducing the France-inspired Kalos region, these are the first Pokémon games rendered in 3D, and the first released worldwide together.[37] A total of 72 new Pokémon were introduced, starting with Chespin and ending with Volcanion, bringing the franchise’s total to 721. The fewest new Pokémon in a single generation so far; however, the new Mega Evolution feature was added to the games to balance out the lack of new characters. Another addition was the Fairy typing, the first new type since Dark and Steel in the second generation. On May 7, 2014, Nintendo announced remakes of the third generation games Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokémon Omega Rubyand Alpha Sapphire which were released in Japan, North America, Australia, and South Korea on November 21, 2014, and in Europe on November 28, 2014.

Generation 7

Officially announced on February 26, 2016, Pokémon Sun and Moon for the Nintendo 3DS are part of the seventh generation of games, and the celebrations for the 20th anniversary of the franchise, introducing the Hawaii-inspired Alola region. Both games were released worldwide on November 18, 2016, in nine languages; Japanese, English, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Korean, and, for the first time, Chinese (Traditional and Simplified).[38] A total of 81 new Pokémon were introduced, bringing the total to 802. Though no new mega evolutions were added, a new type of form was added for specific Pokémon, called Alola Form, changing their types and move sets. A new type of move was added as well, called the Z-move. Usable by any Pokémon, Z-moves are extremely powerful and as such can only be used once per battle.

Two more games, Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon are scheduled for release on November 17, 2017. These games will add five new Pokémon on top of the ones introduced into Sun and Moon, bringing the total to 807.

Game mechanics

The main staple of the Pokémon video game series revolves around the catching and battling of Pokémon. Starting with a starter Pokémon, the player can catch wild Pokémon by weakening them and catching them with Poké Balls. Conversely, they can choose to defeat them in battle in order to gain experience for their Pokémon, raising their levels and teaching them new moves. Most Pokémon have ‘evolution families’, a term which refers to the Pokémon to evolve into or be evolved into more powerful forms by raising their levels or using certain items. Throughout the game, players will have to battle other trainers in order to progress, with the main goal to defeat various Gym Leaders/Trials and earn the right to become the regional champion. Subsequent games in the series have introduced various side games and side quests, including the Battle Frontiers that display unique battle types and the Pokémon Contests where visual appearance is put on display.

Starter Pokémon

One of the consistent aspects of the Pokémon games—spanning from Pokémon Red and Blue on the Game Boy to the Nintendo 3DS games Pokémon Sun and Moon—is the choice of one of three different Pokémon at the start of the player’s adventures; these three are often labeled “starter Pokémon”. Players can choose a Grass-type, a Fire-type, or a Water-type.[39] For example, in Pokémon Red and Blue (and their respective remakes, Pokémon FireRed and Pokémon LeafGreen), the player has the choice of starting with Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle. The exception to this rule is Pokémon Yellow (a remake of the original games that loosely follows the story of the Pokémon anime), where players are given a Pikachu, an Electric-type mouse Pokémon, famous for being the mascot of the Pokémon media franchise; in this game, however, the three starter Pokémon from Red and Blue can be obtained by meeting certain requirements in game, such as Pikachu having full happiness.[40] Another consistent aspect is that the player’s rival will always choose as his or her starter Pokémon the one that has a type advantage over the player’s Pokémon. For instance, if the player picks a Grass-type Pokémon, the rival will always pick the Fire-type starter. An exception to this is again Pokémon Yellow, in which the rival picks an Eevee, but whether this Eevee evolves into Vaporeon, Jolteon, orFlareon is decided by when the player wins and loses to the rival through the journey. Pokémon Sun and Moon are also an exception where the rival will pick the starter weak toward the players, with the remaining starter used elsewhere. The GameCube games Pokémon Colosseum and Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness also contain an exception; whereas in most games the player’s initial Pokémon starts at Level 5, in these two games the player’s initial Pokémon starts at Levels 10 and 25, respectively. In Colosseum the player’s starter Pokémon are Espeon and Umbreon, while in Gale of Darkness the player’s starter is Eevee.


The Pokédex is an electronic device featured in the Pokémon video game, anime, and manga series. In the games, whenever a Pokémon is first captured, its data will be added to a player’s Pokédex, but in the anime, the Pokédex is a comprehensive electronic reference encyclopedia, usually referred to in order to deliver exposition. “Pokédex” is also used to refer to a list of Pokémon, usually a list of Pokémon by number. In the video games, a Pokémon Trainer is issued a blank device at the start of the journey. A trainer must then attempt to fill the Pokédex by encountering and at least briefly obtaining each of the different species of Pokémon. A player will receive the name and image of a Pokémon after encountering one that was not previously in the Pokédex, typically after battling said Pokémon either in the wild or in a trainer battle (with the exceptions of link battles and tournament battles, such as in the Battle Frontier). In Pokémon Red and Blue, some Pokémon’s data is added to the Pokédex simply by viewing the Pokémon, such as in the zoo outside the Safari Zone. Also, certain NPC characters may add to the Pokédex by explaining what a Pokémon looks like during conversation.

More detailed information is available after the player obtains a member of the species, either through capturing the Pokémon in the wild, evolving a previously captured Pokémon, hatching a Pokémon egg (from the second generation onwards), or through a trade with another trainer (either an NPC or another player). This information includes height, weight, species type, typing, and a short description of the Pokémon. Later versions of the Pokédex have more detailed information, like the size of a certain Pokémon compared to the player character, or Pokémon being sorted by their habitat (so far, the latter feature is only in the FireRed and LeafGreen versions). The most current forms of Pokédex are capable of containing information on all Pokémon currently known. The GameCube games, Pokémon Colosseum and Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness, have a Pokémon Digital Assistant (P★DA) which is similar to the Pokédex, but also tells what types are effective against a Pokémon and gives a description of its abilities.[41]

In other media

Ash Ketchum holding Pikachu in the pilot episode, “Pokémon, I Choose You!“.

Anime series

The Pokémon anime series and films are a meta-series of adventures usually separate from the canon that most of the Pokémon video games follow (with the exception of Pokémon Yellow, a game based loosely on the anime storyline). The anime follows the quest of the main character, Ash Ketchum (known as Satoshi in Japan), a Pokémon Master in training, as he and a small group of friends travel around the world of Pokémon along with their Pokémon partners.[42]

The original series, titled Pocket Monsters, or simply Pokémon in Western countries (often referred to as Pokémon: Gotta Catch ‘Em All to distinguish it from the later series), begins with Ash’s first day as a Pokémon trainer. His first (and signature) Pokémon is a Pikachu, differing from the games, where only Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle could be chosen.[43] The series follows the storyline of the original games, Pokémon Red and Blue, in the region of Kanto. Accompanying Ash on his journeys are Brock, the Pewter City Gym Leader, and Misty, the youngest of the Gym Leader sisters from Cerulean City. Pokémon: Adventures in the Orange Islands follows Ash’s adventures in the Orange Islands, a place unique to the anime, and replaces Brock with Tracey Sketchit, an artist and “Pokémon watcher”. The next series, based on the second generation of games, include Pokémon: Johto Journeys, Pokémon: Johto League Champions, and Pokémon: Master Quest, following the original trio of Ash, Brock, and Misty in the western Johto region.

The saga continues in Pokémon: Advanced, based on the third generation games. Ash and company travel to Hoenn, a southern region in the Pokémon World. Ash takes on the role of a teacher and mentor for a novice Pokémon trainer named May. Her brother Max accompanies them, and though he isn’t a trainer, he knows large amounts of handy information. Brock (from the original series) soon catches up with Ash, but Misty has returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as a gym leader (Misty, along with other recurring characters, appears in the spin-off series Pokémon Chronicles). The Advanced series concludes with the Battle Frontier saga, based on the Emerald version and including aspects of FireRed and LeafGreen. It ended with Max leaving to pick his starter Pokémon and May going to the Grand Festival in Johto.

In the Diamond and Pearl series, based on the fourth generation games, Ash, Brock, and a new companion, an aspiring Pokémon coordinator named Dawn, travel through the region of Sinnoh. At the end of the series, Ash and Brock return to Kanto where Brock begins to follow his newfound dream of becoming a Pokémon doctor himself.

Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes!, based on the fifth generation games, features Ash and Pikachu traveling through the region of Unova (Isshu in Japan) alongside two new companions, Iris and Cilan (Dent in Japan) who part ways with them after returning to Kanto.

Pocket Monsters: XY (ポケットモンスターXY Poketo Monsutā Ekkusu Wai), is the current airing series based on the sixth generation games, following Ash and Pikachu’s journey through the region of Kalos, accompanied by Ash’s childhood friend Serena and the siblings Clemont and Bonnie.[44][45][46]

In addition to the TV series, nineteen Pokémon films have been made, with the pair of films, Pokémon the Movie: Black—Victini and Reshiram and White—Victini and Zekromconsidered together as one. A twentieth is also in production. Collectible bonuses, such as promotional trading cards, have been available with some of the films. Various children’s books, collectively known as Pokémon Junior, are also based on the anime.[47]


Given release years are the original Japanese release years.

It was announced by The Hollywood Reporter that Warner Bros. Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Legendary Pictures are in negotiations for a live action Pokémon movie.[48] Deadline reports that Legendary are closing a deal for the film after Pokémon Go‘s success and will also make a live Detective Pikachu movie as well with Universal Pictures distributing outside Japan.[49][50] Nicole Perlman and Alex Hirsch are penning the script.[15] Chris McKay, Robert Rodriguez, Tim Miller, Mark A.Z. Dippé, Shane Ackerand Chris Wedge were being considered as potential directors.[citation needed] Toho will distribute the film in Japan, while Universal Pictures will distribute it outside Japan. On November 30, 2016, Deadline reveals that Legendary Entertainment has chosen Rob Letterman to direct the film.[51] It was announced that the film’s titled will be calledPokémon’s Detective Pikachu.[52]


Pokémon CDs have been released in North America, most of them in conjunction with the theatrical releases of the first three Pokémon films. These releases were commonplace until late 2001. On March 27, 2007, a tenth anniversary CD was released containing 18 tracks from the English dub; this was the first English-language release in over five years. Soundtracks of the Pokémon feature films have been released in Japan each year in conjunction with the theatrical releases.

Year Title
June 29, 1999[53] Pokémon 2.B.A. Master
November 9, 1999[54] Pokémon: The First Movie
February 8, 2000 Pokémon World
May 9, 2000 Pokémon: The First Movie Original Motion Picture Score
July 18, 2000 Pokémon: The Movie 2000
Unknown1 Pokémon: The Movie 2000 Original Motion Picture Score
January 23, 2001 Totally Pokémon
April 3, 2001 Pokémon 3: The Ultimate Soundtrack
October 9, 2001 Pokémon Christmas Bash
March 27, 2007 Pokémon X: Ten Years of Pokémon
November 12, 2013 Pokémon X & Pokémon Y: Super Music Collection
December 10, 2013 Pokémon FireRed & Pokémon LeafGreen: Super Music Collection
January 14, 2014 Pokémon HeartGold & Pokémon SoulSilver: Super Music Collection
February 11, 2014 Pokémon Ruby & Pokémon Sapphire: Super Music Collection
March 11, 2014 Pokémon Diamond & Pokémon Pearl: Super Music Collection
April 8, 2014 Pokémon Black & Pokémon White: Super Music Collection
May 13, 2014 Pokémon Black 2 & Pokémon White 2: Super Music Collection
December 21, 2014 Pokémon Omega Ruby & Pokémon Alpha Sapphire: Super Music Collection
April 27, 2016 Pokémon Red and Green Super Music Collection
November 30, 2016 Pokémon Sun & Pokémon Moon: Super Music Collection

^1 The exact date of release is unknown.

Pokémon Trading Card Game

Palkia, the Spacial PokémonTrading Card Game card fromPokémon TCG Diamond and Pearl.

The Pokémon Trading Card Game (TCG) is a collectible card game with a goal similar to a Pokémon battle in the video game series. Players use Pokémon cards, with individual strengths and weaknesses, in an attempt to defeat their opponent by “knocking out” his or her Pokémon cards.[55] The game was first published in North America by Wizards of the Coast in 1999.[56] However, with the release ofPokémon Ruby and Sapphire Game Boy Advance video games, The Pokémon Company took back the card game from Wizards of the Coast and started publishing the cards themselves.[56] The Expedition expansion introduced the Pokémon-e Trading Card Game, where the cards (for the most part) were compatible with the Nintendo e-Reader. Nintendo discontinued its production of e-Reader compatible cards with the release of ‘ex’ FireRed & LeafGreen. In 1998, Nintendo released a Game Boy Color version of the trading card game in Japan; Pokémon Trading Card Game was subsequently released to the US and Europe in 2000. The game included digital versions cards from the original set of cards and the first two expansions (Jungle and Fossil), as well as several cards exclusive to the game. A Japan-exclusive sequel was released in 2001.[57]


There are various Pokémon manga series, four of which were released in English by Viz Media, and seven of them released in English byChuang Yi. The manga series vary from game-based series to being based on the anime and the Trading Card Game. Original stories have also been published. As there are several series created by different authors most Pokémon manga series differ greatly from each other and other media, such as the anime. Pokémon Pocket Monsters and Pokémon Adventures are the only two manga never stopped since the first generation.

Manga released in English
Manga not released in English
  • Pokémon Pocket Monsters by Kosaku Anakubo, the first Pokémon manga. It is chiefly a gag manga series stars a Pokémon Trainer named Red, his rude Clefairy, and Pikachu.
  • Pokémon Card ni Natta Wake (How I Became a Pokémon Card) by Kagemaru Himeno, an artist for the Trading Card Game. There are six volumes and each includes a special promotional card. The stories tell the tales of the art behind some of Himeno’s card